Skip to main content

Full text of "The turf"

See other formats













Edinburgh : T. and A. CONSTABLE, (late) Printers to He* Majesty 


I MONG the numerous English 
writers on the subject of 
Sporting, very few hold a 
higher position than does 
the writer who ultimately 
assumed the pseudonym of 'Nimrod.' He 
published about a dozen works, between the 
years 1831 and 1843. Some of these had 
previously appeared in the Quarterly Review 
and the New Sporting Magazine, and were 
unsigned. They related, generally speaking, 
to the Chace, the Road, and the Turf, and 
cognate subjects. 

Charles James Apperley, for that was the 
real and full name of * Nimrod,' was, the 
second son of Thomas Apperley, Esq., of 
Wootton House, Gloucestershire, but is stated 
to have been born near Wrexham during 

viii THE TURF 

1777. He received his education at Rugby. 
Young Apperley married early in life, and 
settled in Warwickshire, where he devoted 
himself to the pleasures of the Chace. At 
the age of forty-four this was in 1821 
he commenced to contribute to the Sporting 
Magazine ; and in 1830 he deemed it 
judicious to leave the country and take up 
his residence in France. 

'Nimrod' had now become well known 
to his contemporaries as a great authority 
on the points of both horses and hounds, 
and on everything connected with 'the 
noble science of fox-hunting'; and was 
generally regarded as a fairly good coach- 
man and judge of driving, and ' had at any 
rate a long and practical acquaintance with 
the mails and stage-coaches running upon 
the great high roads which led to London/ 
His writings upon these subjects, therefore, 
were regarded as authoritative. The long 
interval of time which has elapsed since 
they were penned has detracted but little 
from their original value. The works of 


'Nimrod' are held in high regard by all 
who are competent to judge. 

The most important of ' Nimrod's ' con- 
tributions to sporting literature are The 
Chace, The Turf, and The Road, and his 
Life of John Mytton. The first-mentioned 
work, in whole and in part, has passed 
through several editions, and been illus- 
trated by H. Alken. This work was con- 
tributed, shortly after his removal to the 
Continent, to the Quarterly Review, where 
it appeared in three instalments, and was 
first published in book form in 1837 by the 
famous publishing house of Murray. They 
appeared anonymously. 

The Chace was the first of this series of 
papers, and appeared in the periodical men- 
tioned for March 1832, and was entitled 
' English Fox-hunting.' It gives c the famous 
description of an ideal run with the Quorn 
under Mr. Osbaldeston's mastership.' 

The Road appeared in the next volume to 
that of The Chace in the Quarterly, and 
was ostensibly a review of Dr. Kitchener's 


Traveller? Oracle, 3rd edition, 1828, and 
Jervis' Horse and Carriage Oracle, ist 
edition, 1807, 3rd edition, 1828. 

The second volume of ' The Sportsman's 
Classics ' is a careful reprint of these two 
papers which have become English Sporting 

The Turf appeared in the Quarterly for 
July 1833. Apperley was undoubtedly in- 
defatigable in research for material for his 
literary work ; and * as a gentleman jockey 
he occasionally put in a not discreditable 
appearance at hunt-meetings.' On this 
subject, as on allied themes, ' Nimrod ' 
wrote with a graphic pen. 

The Turf constitutes the third volume of 
this series of reprints. 

It may be added that ' Nimrod ' returned 
to his native country. He died in Upper 
Belgrave Place, London, on May 19, 1843. 

The head- and tail-pieces, title, and full- 
page illustrations are from the facile pen 
of Mr. Herbert Cole. 

J. P. B. 


N splendour of exhibition 
and multitude of attendants, 
Newmarket, Epsom, Ascot, 
or Doncaster would bear no 
comparison with the impos- 
ing spectacles of the Olympic 
Games ; and had not racing been considered 
in Greece a matter of the highest national 
importance, Sophocles would have been 
guilty of a great fault in his Electra, when 
he puts into the mouth of the messenger 
who comes to recount the death of Orestes, 
a long description of the above sports. Nor 
are these the only points of difference be- 
tween the racing of Olympia and New- 
market. At the former, honour alone was 
the reward of the winner, and no man lost 
either his character or his money, feut 
still, great as must have been in those old 
days the passion for equestrian distinction, 


it was left for later times to display, to per- 
fection, the full powers of the race-horse. 
The want of stirrups alone must have been 
a terrible want. With the well-caparisoned 
war-horse, or the highly finished cheval 
crecok) even in his gallopade, capriole, or 
balotade, the rider may sit down upon his 
twist, and secure himself in his saddle by 
the clip which his thighs and knees will 
afford him ; but there is none of that 
(pbstando) resisting power about his seat 
which enables him to contend with the 
race-horse in his gallop. We admit that 
a very slight comparison can be drawn 
between the race-horse of ancient and that 
of modern days ; but whoever has seen the 
print of the celebrated jockey, John Oakley, 
on Eclipse the only man, by the way, who 
could ride him well will be convinced that, 
without the fulcrum of stirrups, he could not 
have ridden him at all ; as, from the style in 
which he ran, his nose almost sweeping the 
ground, he would very soon have been pulled 
from the saddle over his head. 

Of the training and management of the 
Olympic race-horse we are unfortunately left 
in ignorance all that can be inferred being 


the fact, that the equestrian candidates were 
required to enter their names and send their 
horses to Elis at least thirty days before the 
celebration of the games commenced ; and 
that the charioteers and riders, whether 
owners or proxies, went through a prescribed 
course of exercise during the intervening 
month. In some respects, we can see, they 
closely resembled ourselves. They had their 
course for full-aged horses, and their course 
for colts ; and their prize for which mares 
only started, corresponding with our Epsom 
Oaks-stakes. It is true that the race with 
riding-horses was neither so magnificent 
nor so expensive, and consequently not 
considered so royal^ as the race with 
chariots ; yet they had their gentlemen- 
jockeys in those days, and noted ones too, 
for amongst the number were Philip, King 
of Macedon, and Hiero, King of Syracuse. 
The first Olympic ode of Pindar, indeed, is 
inscribed to the latter sovereign, in which 
mention is made of his horse Phrenicus, on 
which he was the winner of the Olympic 
crown. Considerable obscurity, however, 
hangs over most of the details of the 
Olympic turf, and particularly as regards 


the classing of the riders, and the weights 
the horses carried. It is generally supposed 
these points were left to the discretion of 
the judges, who were sworn to do justice ; 
and here we have a faint resemblance to 
the modern handicap. 

How much is it to be lamented, that 
we have no faithful representation of the 
Olympic jockeys of Philip on his brother 
to Bucephalus, or the King of Syracuse on 
Phrenicus. We are not to expect that they 
were dressed a la Chifney; but we could 
not see deformity on such classic ground. 
As suited to their occupation, nothing can 
be more neat nothing more perfect 
nothing more in keeping, than the present 
costume of the English jockey; but a 
century back it was deformity personified. 
4 Your clothes,' says the author of The 
Gentleman's Recreation, in his direction to 
his race-rider for by the prin-annexed we 
must decline calling him jockey ' should 
be of coloured silk, or of white holland, as 
being very advantageous to the spectator. 
Your waistcoat and drawers (sans culottes, 
we presume) must be made close to your 
body, and on your head a little cap, tied. 


Let your boots be gartered up fast, and 
your spurs must be of good metal/ The 
saddle that this living objectthis 'figure 
of f un > was placed upon, also bade defiance 
to good jockeyship, being nearly a facsimile 
of that upon a child's rocking-horse ; and 
which, from the want of a proper flap, as 
well as from the forward position of the 
stirrup-leathers, gave no support to the 

Cowper says, in bitter satire 

4 We justly boast 

At least superior jockeyship, and claim 
The honours of the turf as all our own ! ' 

The abuses of the turf we abhor, and shall 
in part expose ; let it not, however, be for- 
gotten that, had we no , racing, we should 
not be in possession of the noblest animal 
in the creation the thorough-bred horse. 
Remember, too, that poor human nature 
cannot exist without some sort of recreation; 
even the rigid Cato says, ' the man who has 
no time to be idle is a slave.' Enclosures, 
and gradual refinement of manners, have 
already contracted the circle of rural 
sports for which England has been so long 
celebrated; and we confess we are sorry 


for this, for we certainly give many of 
them the preference over racing. Hawk- 
ing has disappeared ; shooting has lost 
the wild sportsmanlike character of earlier 
days; and hare-hunting has fallen into 
disrepute. Fox-hunting, no doubt, stands 
its ground, but fears are entertained 
even for the king of sports. Fox-hunting 
suspends the cares of life, whilst the specu- 
lations of the race-course too generally 
increase them. The one steels the con- 
stitution, whilst the anxious cares of the 
other have a contrary effect. The love of 
the chace may be said to be screwed into 
the soul of man by the noble hand of 
Nature, whereas the pursuit of the other 
is too often the offspring of a passion we 
should wish to disown. The one enlarges 
those sympathies which unite us in a bond 
of reciprocal kindness and good offices ; in 
the pursuit of the other, almost every man 
we meet is our foe. The one is a pastime 
the other a game, and a hazardous one, 
too, and often played at fearful odds. 
Lastly, the chace does not usually bring 
any man into bad company ; the modern 
turf is fast becoming the very manor of 


the worst. All this we admit ; but still we 
are not for abandoning a thing only for 
evils not necessarily mixed up with it. 

Having seen the English turf reach its 
acme, we should be sorry to witness its 
decline ; but fall it must, if a tighter hand 
be not held over the whole system apper- 
taining to it. Noblemen and gentlemen of 
fortune and integrity must rouse themselves 
from an apathy to which they appear lately 
to have been lulled ; and they must separate 
themselves from a set of marked, unprin- 
cipled miscreants, who are endeavouring to 
elbow them off the ground which ought to 
be exclusively their own. No honourable 
man can be successful, for any length of 
time, against such a horde of determined 
depredators as have lately been seen on 
our race-courses ; the most princely fortune 
cannot sustain itself against the deep-laid 
stratagems of such villainous combinations. 

Perhaps it may not be necessary to enter 
into the very accidence of racing ; but, on 
the authority of Mr. Strutt, On the ports 
and Pastimes of England, something like it 
was set agoing in Athelstane's reign. * Several 
race-horses,' says he, * were sent by Hugh 


Capet, in the ninth century, as a present to 
Athelstane, when he was soliciting the hand 
of Ethelswitha, his sister.' A more distinct 
indication of a sport of this kind occurs in 
a description of London, written by William 
Fitz-Stephen, who lived in the reign of 
Henry n. He informs us that horses were 
usually exposed to sale in Smithfield ; and, 
in order to prove the excellency of hackneys 
and charging -horses, they were usually 
matched against each other. Indeed, the 
monk gives a very animated description of 
the start and finish of a horse-race. In 
John's reign, running-horses are frequently 
mentioned in the register of royal expendi- 
ture. John was a renowned sportsman he 
needed a redeeming quality but it does 
not appear that he made use of his running- 
horses otherwise than in the sports of the 
field. Edwards IL, in., and iv., were like- 
wise breeders of horses, as also Henry vin., 
who imported some from the East ; but the 
running-horses of those days are not to be 
too closely associated with the turf; at least 
we have reason to believe the term generally 
applies to light and speedy animals, used in 
racing perhaps, occasionally, but chiefly in 


other active pursuits, and in contradistinction 
to the war-horse, then required to be most 
powerful, to carry a man cased in armour, 
and seldom weighing less than twenty stone. 
In fact, the invention of gunpowder did 
much towards refining the native breed of 
the English horse; and we begin to re- 
cognise the symptoms of a scientific turf 
in many of the satirical writings of the days 
of Elizabeth. Take, for instance, Bishop 
Hall's lines, in 1597 : 

* Dost thou prize 

Thy brute-beasts' worth by their dams' qualities ? 
Sayst thou thy colt shall prove a swift-paced steed, 
Only because a jennet did him breed? 
Or, sayst thou this same horse shall win the prize, 
Because his dam was swiftest Tranchefice ? ' 

It is quite evident, indeed, that racing was 
in considerable vogue during this reign, al- 
though it does not appear to have been 
much patronised by the Queen, otherwise it 
would, we may be sure, have formed a part 
of the pastimes at Kenilworth. The famous 
George, Earl of Cumberland, was one of 
the victims of the turf in those early days. 

In the reign of James i., private matches 
between gentlemen, then their own jockeys. 


became very common in England ; and the 
first public race meetings appear at Gar- 
terley, in Yorkshire ; Croydon, in Surrey ; 
and Theobald's, on Enfield Chace; the 
prize being a golden bell. The art of train- 
ing also may be said now to have com- 
menced j strict attention was paid to the 
food and exercise of the horses, but the 
effect of weight was not taken into con- 
sideration, ten stone being generally, we 
have reason to believe, both the maximum 
and minimum of what the horses carried. 
James patronised racing; he gave five 
hundred pounds a vast price in those days 
for an Arabian, which, according to the 
Duke of Newcastle, was of little value, 
having been beaten easily by our native 
horses. Prince Henry had a strong attach- 
ment to racing as well as hunting, but he 
was cut off at an early age. Charles i. 
was well inclined towards such sports, and 
excelled in horsemanship, but the distrac- 
tions of his reign prevented his following 
these peaceful pastimes. According to 
Boucher, however, in his Survey of the Town 
of Stamford, the first valuable public prize 
was run for at that place in Charles the 


First's time, viz., a silver and gilt cup and 
cover, of the estimated value of eight pounds, 
provided by the care of the aldermen for 
the time being ; and Sir Edward Harwood 
laments the scarcity of able horses in the 
kingdom, 'not more than two thousand 
being to be found equal to the like number 
of French horses'; for which he blames prin- 
cipally racing. 1 In 1640, races were held in 
Newmarket ; also in Hyde Park, as appears 
from a comedy called the Merry Beggars, or 
Jovial Crew, 1641 : ' Shall we make a fling 
to London, and see how the spring appears 
there in Spring Gardens, and in Hyde Park, 
to see the races, horse and foot ? ' 

The wily Cromwell was not altogether in- 
different to the breed of running-horses, and 
with one of the stallions in his stud 
Place's White Turk do the oldest of our 
pedigrees end. He had also a famous 
brood-mare, called the Coffin mare, from 
the circumstance of her being concealed in 
a vault during the search for his effects at 
the time of the Restoration. Mr. Place, 

1 Some time after this the Duke of Buckingham's 
Helmsley Turk, and the Morocco Barb, were brought 
to England, and greatly improved the native breed. 


stud-groom to Cromwell, was a conspicuous 
character of those days ; and, according to 
some, the White Turk was his individual 
property. Charles n. was a great patron 
of the race-course. He frequently honoured 
this pastime with his presence, and ap- 
pointed races to be run in Datchet Mead, 
as also at Newmarket, where his horses 
were entered in his own name, and where 
he rebuilt the decayed palace of his grand- 
father James i. He also visited other 
places at which races were instituted, Bur- 
ford Downs in particular (since known as 
Bibury race-course, so often frequented by 
George iv. when regent) as witness the 
doggrel of old Baskerville : 

* Next for the glory of the place, 
Here has been rode many a race. 
King Charles the Second I saw here ; 
But I 've forgotten in what year. 
The Duke of Monmouth here also 
Made his horse to sweat and blow, 5 etc. 

At this time it appears that prizes run for 
became more valuable than they formerly 
had been; amongst them were bowls, and 
various other pieces of plate, usually esti- 
mated at the value of one hundred guineas ; 


and from the inscriptions on these trophies 
of victory, much interesting information 
might be obtained. This facetious monarch 
was likewise a breeder of race-horses, having 
imported mares from Barbary, and other 
parts, selected by his Master of the Horse, 
sent abroad for the purpose, and called 
Royal Mares appearing as such in the 
stud-book to this day. One of these mares 
was the dam of Dodsworth, bred by the 
King, and said to be the earliest race-horse 
we have on record whose pedigree can be 
properly authenticated. 

James n. was a horseman, but was not 
long enough among his people to enable 
them to judge of his sentiments and in- 
clinations respecting the pleasures of the 
turf. When he retired to France, however, 
he devoted himself to hunting, and had 
several first-rate English horses always in 
his stud. William in. and his queen were 
also patrons of racing, not only continuing 
the bounty of their predecessors, but add- 
ing several plates to the former donations. 
Queen Anne's consort, Prince George of 
Denmark, kept a fine stud; and the Cur- 
wen Bay Barb, and the celebrated Darley 


Arabian, appeared in this reign. The 
Queen also added several plates. George i. 
was no racer, but he discontinued silver 
plates as prizes, and instituted the King's 
Plates, as they have been since termed, 
being one hundred guineas, paid in cash. 
George n. cared as little for racing as his 
father, but, to encourage the breed of 
horses, as well as to suppress low gambling, 
he made some good regulations for the 
suppression of pony races, and running 
for any sum under fifty pounds. In his 
reign the Godolphin Arabian appeared, the 
founder of our best blood the property of 
the then Earl of Godolphin. 1 George in., 
though not much a lover of the turf, gave 
it some encouragement as a national pas- 

i The reigns of King William, Queen Anne, and 
Georges I. and n. f are remarkable in the annals of 
the turf as having been the days of the noted Tregon- 
well Frampton, Esq., a gentleman of family and fortune 
in the west of England, Master of the Horse during all 
the above-mentioned reigns ; who had a house at New- 
market ; was a heavy bettor ; and, if not belied, a great 
rogue. The horrible charge against him, however, re- 
specting his qualifying his horse Dragon for the race 
by a violent outrage upon humanity, and alluded to 
by Dr. Hawksworth in the Elysium of Beast s^ is sup- 
posed to be unfounded. 


time j in the fourth year of his reign Eclipse 
was foaled, and from that period may English 
racing be dated \ 

George iv. outstripped all his royal pre- 
decessors on the turf, in the ardour of his 
pursuit of it, and the magnificence of his 
racing establishment. Indeed, the epithet 
* delighting in horses/ applied by Pindar 
to Hiero, might be applied to him, for no 
man could have been fonder of them than 
he was, and his judgment in everything 
relating to them was considered excellent. 
He was the breeder of several first-rate 
race-horses, amongst which was Whiskey, 
the sire of Eleanor (the only winner of 
the Derby and Oaks great stakes); and 
a,lso Gustavus, who won the Derby for Mr. 
Hunter. Our present gracious monarch 
bred upon another element has no taste 
for this sport ; but continued it for a short 
time after his brother's death to run out 
his engagements, and also with a view of 
not throwing a damp over a pastime of 
such high interest to his subjects. It was 
at one time given out that his Majesty had 
consented to keep his horses in training, 
provided he did not lose more than four 


thousand pounds per annum by them ; but 
such has not been the case. A royal stud, 
however, still exists at Hampton Court, and 
the following celebrated English stallions 
are now there, exclusive of four Arabians 
two from the King of Oude, and two from 
the Imaum of Muscat, as presents to his 
Majesty. The former are : the Colonel, by 
Whisker, dam by Delpini, the property of 
his late Majesty George iv. ; Actaeon, by 
Scud, out of Diana, by Stamford, purchased 
of Viscount Kelburne for the sum of one 
thousand guineas ; Cain, by Paulowitz, dam 
by Pagnator; and Rubini, by St. Patrick, 
out of Slight, by Selim : the two latter hired 
for the use of the stud. Of brood mares 
there are at present no less than thirty- 
three in the paddocks, of which there are 
forty-three, varying in size from three to 
five acres each; and some idea may be 
formed of the profit or loss of this exten- 
sive establishment from the following facts : 
The produce are annually sold at Tatter- 
sail's, on the Monday in the Epsom race- 
week, being then one year old. At 
two of these sales they brought within a 
trifle of two hundred pounds each ; and at 


that of the present year, the colts and fillies, 
twenty in number, were knocked down at 
two thousand eight hundred and forty-six 
guineas, or within a fraction of one hun- 
dred and forty-two guineas for each. 1 It 
may be worthy of remark, that a regard 
has ever been paid in the Hampton Court 
stud to what is termed stout blood. For 
example, of the stud horses which those 
we have now mentioned replaced, Waterloo 
was out of a Trumpator, Tranby 2 an 
Orville, Ranter a Beningbrough, and the 
Colonel a Delpini, mare. This stud is at 
present under the superintendence of 
Colonel Wemyss, brother to the Member 
for Fife, and Equerry to the King, residing 
at the stud-house, formerly occupied by the 

1 See a list of prices in June (1836) number of The 
New Sporting Magazine. 

2 Tranby, it will be recollected, performed the 
hitherto unrivalled feat of carrying Mr. Osbaldeston 
sixteen miles in thirty-three minutes and fifteen seconds, 
in his wonderful match against time, over Newmarket 
course, last October twelve months. The time of each 
four-mile heat was as follows : 

Heats. Min. Sec. 

ist .... 8 10 

2nd .... 8 o 

3rd .... 8 15 

4th .... 8 50 


Earl of Albemarle; and assisted by the 
valuable services of Mr. Worley, many years 
stud-groom to his Royal Highness the late 
Duke of York. Some amusing anecdotes 
are on record, touching the rather incon- 
gruous association of our sailor-king with 
the turf, one of which we will venture to 
repeat. Previously to the first appearance 
of the royal stud in the name of William iv., 
the trainer had an audience of his Majesty, 
and humbly requested to be informed what 
horses it was the royal pleasure should be 
sent to Goodwood. c Send the whole 
squadron,' said the King ; ' some of them, 
I suppose, will win.' l 

Previously to 1753 there were only two 
meetings in the year at Newmarket 2 for the 
purpose of running horses, one in the spring, 
and another in October. At present there 
are seven, distinguished by the following 

1 It is proper to remark, that the withdrawing the 
royal stud was compensated by additional King's 
Plates, and by his Majesty's present to the Jockey 
Club of the splendid challenge-prize the Eclipse Foot, 
still in Mr. Batson's keeping. 

2 Although other places claim precedence over New- 
market as the early scenes of public horse-racing, it is 
nevertheless the metropolis of the turf, and the only 


terms : The Craven, in compliment to the 
late Earl Craven, commencing on Easter 
Monday, and instituted in 1771; the First 
Spring, on the Monday fortnight following ; 
the Second Spring, a fortnight after that, 
and instituted 1753; tne J u ly> commonly 
early in that month, instituted 1753; the 
First October, on the first Monday in that 
month ; the Second October, on the Monday 
fortnight following, instituted 1762; and 
the Third October, or Houghton, a fortnight 
afterwards, instituted 1770. With the last- 
mentioned meeting, which, weather permit- 
ting, generally lasts a week, and at which 
there is a great deal of racing, the sports of 
the turf close for the year, with the excep- 
tion of Tarporley, a very old hunt-meeting 
in Cheshire, now nearly abandoned ; and 
a Worcester autumn meeting, chiefly for 
hunters and horses of the gentlemen and 
farmers within the hunt. 

place in this island where there are more than two 
race-meetings in the year. It does not appear that 
races took place there previously to Charles the Second's 
time ; but Simon d'Ewes, in his Journal, speaks of a 
horse-race near Linton, Cambridgeshire, in the reign 
of James I. , at which town most of the company slept 
on the night of the race. 


At Newmarket, though there were for- 
merly six and eight mile races, there are 
now not more than four over the Beacon 
Course, or B. C. as it is called, which is 
four miles, in all the seven meetings. This 
is an improvement, not only on the score 
of humanity, but as far as regards sport, 
for horses seldom come in near to each 
other, after having run that course. Indeed, 
so much is the system of a four-mile heat 
disliked, that, when it does occur, the horses 
often walk the first two. Yet it sometimes 
happens otherwise, as in the case of Chateau- 
Margaux and Mortgage, in one of the meet- 
ings in 1826; but all who remember the 
struggle between these two noble animals 
the very best of their kind, perhaps never 
exceeded in st0utness,and the state in which 
they appeared at the conclusion, can only 
think of it with disgust. Chateau's dead 
heat with Lamplighter was something like a 
repetition of the scene ; but, to the honour 
of their owners, they were not suffered to 
run another, and the plate was divided 
between them. 

The Curragh of Kildare is said to be in 
some respects its equal, but nothing can be 


superior to Newmarket heath as a race- 
course. The nightly workings of the earth- 
worms keep it in that state of elasticity 
favourable to the action of the race-horse, 
and it is never known to be hard, although 
occasionally deep. But the great superiority 
of this ground consists in the variety of its 
courses eighteen in number adapted to 
every variety in age, weight, or qualifications 
of the horses, and hence of vast importance 
in match-making. Almost every race-horse 
has a marked peculiarity in his running. 
A stout horse ends his race to advantage up 
hill; a speedy jade down hill; another goes 
best over a flat, whilst there are a few that 
have no choice of ground and some whom 
none will suit. The Newmarket judge's 
box being on wheels, it is moved from one 
winning-post to another, as the races are 
fixed to end, which is the case nowhere but 
at Newmarket. 1 

1 Great improvements have from time to time been 
effected on Newmarket heath, but particularly within 
the last twenty years, by the exertions of the Duk of 
Portland and Lord Lowther. These have been chiefly 
accomplished by manuring, sheep-folding, and paring 
and burning, by which means a better sort of covering 
to the surface has been procured; and likewise by 


The office of judge at Newmarket varies 
from that of others filling similar situations. 
He neither sees the jockeys weighed out or 
in, as the term is, neither is he required to 
take notice of them or their horses in the 
race. He judges ', and proclaims the winner ; 
by the colour that of every jockey who 
rides being handed to him before starting. 
Indeed, the horses are seldom seen by him 
until the race begins, and, in some cases, 
till it nearly ends ; as they generally pro- 
ceed from their stables to the saddling- 
house by a circuitous route. The best 
possible regulations are adopted for the 
proper preservation of the ground during 
the running, and we know of nothing to be 
found fault with, unless it be the horsemen 
being allowed to follow the race-horses up 
the course, which injures the ground when 
it is wet. It is true, a very heavy iron 
roller is employed upon it every evening in 
the meetings, but this cannot always be 

The racing ground on the heath has been 

destroying the tracks of old roads, particularly on that 
part called the Flat, which is undoubtedly the best 
racing ground in the world. 


the property of the Jockey Club since the 
year 1753. A great power is gained here 
by giving the power of preventing obnoxious 
persons coming upon it during the meet- 
ings; and it would be well if that power 
were oftener exerted. Betting-posts are 
placed on various parts of the heath, at 
some one of which the sportsmen assemble 
immediately after each race, to make their 
bets on the one that is to follow. As not 
more than half an hour elapses between the 
events, the scene is of the most animated 
description, and a stranger would imagine 
that all the tongues of Babel were let loose 
again. No country under the heavens, 
however, produces such a scene as this; 
and he would feel a difficulty in reconciling 
the proceedings of those gentlemen of the 
betting-ring with the accounts he might 
read the next morning in the newspapers of 
the distressed state of England, or that 
money was scarce anywhere. 'What do 
you bet on this race, my lord?' says a 
vulgar-looking man, on a shabby hack, 
with *a shocking bad hat.' 'I want to 
back the field/ says my lord. 'So do I,' 
says the leg. ' I ; 11 bet five hundred to two 


hundred you don't name the winner,' cries 
my lord. ' I '11 take six,' exclaims the leg. 
4 I'll bet it you/ roars my lord. 'I'll 
double it,' bellows the leg. l Done,' shouts 
the peer. * Treble it?' 'No.' The bet 
is entered, and so much for wanting to 
back the field ! but in love, war, and horse- 
racing, stratagem, we believe, is allowed. 
Scores of such scenes as this take place in 
those momentous half-hours. All bets lost 
at Newmarket are paid the following morn- 
ing, in the town, and fifty thousand pounds, 
or more, have been known to exchange 
hands in one day. 

The principal feature in Newmarket is 
the New Rooms, for the use of the noble- 
men and gentlemen of the Jockey Club, 
and others who are members of the Rooms 
only, situated in the centre of the town, and 
affording every convenience. Each member 
pays thirty guineas on his entrance, and six 
guineas annually, if he attends otherwise 
nothing. The number at present is fifty- 
seven : two black balls exclude. At the 
Craven Meeting of the present year it 
was resolved 'That members of White's, 
Brooks's, or Boodle's Club, may be ad- 


mitted to the News Rooms and Coffee 
Rooms, for any one meeting, without any 
other charge than the payment of one 
half-year's subscription to each; and that 
each member attending any other meeting 
in the same year will be considered a 
member of the New Rooms, and liable to 
all the usual charges.' 

On entering the town from the London 
side, the first object of attraction is the 
house long occupied by the late Duke of 
Queensberry, but at present in a disgraceful 
state of decay. ' Kingston House ' is now 
used as a ' hell ' (sic transit gloria /) ; and 
the palace, the joint work of so many royal 
architects, is partly occupied by a training- 
groom, and partly by his Grace of Rutland, 
whose festivities at Cheveley, during the 
race-meetings, have very wisely been 
abridged. The Earl of Chesterfield has 
a house just on entering the town, and the 
Marquis of Exeter a most convenient one, 
with excellent stabling attached. The Duke 
of Richmond, Mr. Christopher Wilson, 
father of the turf, and several other eminent 
sportsmen, are also domiciled at Newmarket 
during the meetings. But the lion of 


the place is the princely mansion lately 
erected for Mr. Crockford, of ultra-sport- 
ing notoriety. The pleasaunce of this 
insula consists of sixty acres, already en- 
closed by Mr. Crockford within a high 
stone wall. The houses of the Chifneys 
are also stylish things. That of Samuel, 
the renowned jockey, is upon a large scale, 
and very handsomely furnished the Duke 
of Cleveland having for several years 
occupied apartments in it during the meet- 
ings. That of William Chifney, the trainer, 
is still larger, and perhaps, barring Crock- 
ford's, the best house in Newmarket. 1 
Near to the town is the stud-farm of Lord 
Lowther, where Partisan, and a large 
number of brood mares, are kept, the 
latter working daily on the farm, which is 
said to be advantageous to them. Within 
a few miles we have Lower Hare Park, the 
seat of Sir Mark Wood, with Upper Hare 
Park, General Grosvenor's, etc. The stables 
of Newmarket are not altogether so good as 
we should expect to find them. Of the 

1 We are sorry to have to state that a reverse of 
fortune has been the lot of both the Chifneys, and that 
these houses are in the hands of their creditors. 


public ones, perhaps those of Robinson, 
Edwards, Stephenson, and Webb, are the 

That noble gift of Providence, the horse, 
has not been bestowed upon mankind 
without conditions. The first demand 
upon us is to treat him well ; but, to avail 
ourselves of his full powers and capacity, 
we must take him out of the hands of 
nature, and place him in those of art ; and 
no one can look into old works published 
on this subject without being surprised with 
the change that has taken place in the 
system of training the race-horse. The 
Gentleman's Recreation, published nearly 
a century and a half back, must draw a 
smile from the modern trainer, when he 
reads of the quackery to which the race- 
horse was then subject, a pint of good 
sack having been one of his daily doses. 
Again, The British Sportsman, by one 
Squire Osbaldiston, of days long since gone 
by, gravely informs its readers, that one 
month is necessary to prepare a horse for 
a race ; but * if he be very fat or foul, or 
taken from grass,' he might require two. 
This wiseacre has also his juleps and syrups 


' enough to make a horse sick ' indeed 
finishing with the whites of eggs and wine, 
internally administered, and chafing the 
legs of his courser with train-oil and brandy. 
On the other hand, if these worthies could 
be brought to life again, it would astonish 
them to hear that twelve months are now 
considered requisite to bring a race-horse 
quite at the top of his mark to the post. 
The objects of the training-groom can only 
be accomplished by medicine, which purifies 
the system, exercise, which increases 
muscular strength, and food, which pro- 
duces vigour beyond what nature imparts. 
To this is added the necessary operation 
of periodical sweating, to remove the super- 
fluities of flesh and fat, which process is 
more or less necessary to all animals called 
upon to engage in corporeal exertions be- 
yond their ordinary powers. With either 
a man or a horse, his skin is his com- 
plexion ; and whether it be the prize-fighter 
who strips in the ring, or the race-horse at 
the starting-post, that has been subjected 
to this treatment, a lustre of health is 
exhibited such as no other system can 


The most difficult points in the trainer's 
art have only been called into practice 
since the introduction of one, two, and 
three-year-old stakes, never thought of in 
the days of Childers or Eclipse. Saving 
and excepting the treatment of doubtful 
legs, whatever else he has to do in his 
stable is comparatively trifling to the act of 
bringing a young one quite up to the mark, 
and keeping him there till he is wanted. The 
cock was sacred to ^Esculapius by reason 
of his well-known watchfulness ; nor should 
the eye of a training-groom be shut whilst 
he has an animal of this description under 
his care, for a change may take place in 
him in a night, which, like a frost over the 
blossoms, will blast all hopes of his success. 
The immense value, again, which a very 
promising colt now attains in the market 
adds greatly to the charge over him; and 
much credit is due to the trainer who 
brings him well through his engagements, 
whether he be a winner or not. 

The treatment of the seasoned race-horse 
is comparatively easy and straightforward, 
with the exception of such as are very 
difficult to keep in place, by reason of 


constitutional peculiarities. Those which 
have been at work are thus treated, we 
mean when the season is concluded : by 
indulgence in their exercise they are suf- 
fered to gather flesh, or become ' lusty,' as 
the term is, to enable them the better to 
endure their physic ; but, in addition to 
two hours' walking exercise, they must have 
a gentle gallop to keep them quiet. If frost 
sets in,, they are walked and trotted in a 
paddock upon litter, it being considered 
dangerous to take them at that time from 
home. When the weather is favourable, 
they commence a course of physic, con- 
sisting of perhaps three doses, at an interval 
of about eight days between each. A vast 
alteration has taken place in the strength of 
the doses given, and, consequently, accidents 
from physic now more rarely occur. Eight 
drachms of Barbadoes aloes form the largest 
dose at present given to aged horses, with 
six to four-year olds, five to three-year olds, 
four to two-year olds, and from two to 
three to yearlings; although in all such 
operations the constitution of the animal 
must be consulted, After physic, and after 
Christmas, they begin to do rather better 


work, and in about two months before their 
first engagement comes on, they commence 
their regular sweats the distance generally 
four miles for horses four years old and 
upwards. After their last sweat, the jockeys 
who are to ride them generally give them a 
good gallop, by way of feeling their mouths 
and rousing them, for they are apt to 
become shifty, as it is termed, with boys> 
who have not sufficient power over them. 
The act of sweating the race-horse is always 
a course of anxiety to his trainer, and parti- 
cularly so on the eve of a great race for which 
he may be a favourite. The great weight 
of clothes with which he is laden is always 
dangerous, and often fatal, to his legs, and 
there is generally a spy at hand, to ascertain 
whether he pulls up sound or lame. Some 
nonsense has been written by the author of 
a late work, 1 about omitting sweating in the 
process of training; but what would the 
Chifneys say to this? They are acknow- 
ledged pre-eminent in the art, but they are 
also acknowledged to be very severe 
perhaps too much* so with their horses in 
their work ; and, without sweating them, in 

i Scott's Field Sports. 


clothes, they would find it necessary to be 
much more so than they are. It is quite 
certain, that horses cannot race without 
doing severe work ; but the main point to 
be attended to is, not to hurry them in their 
work. As to resting them for many weeks 
at a time, as was formerly the case, that 
practice is now entirely exploded amongst 
all superior judges; and experience has 
proved, that not only the race-horse, but 
the hunter, is best for being kept going the 
year round at times, gently, of course. 
With each, as with man, idleness is the 
parent of misfortune. 

Thucydides says of Themistocles that he 
was a good guesser of the future by the 
past; but this will not do in racing; and 
not only prudence, but justice towards the 
public demands that a race-horse should be 
tried at different periods of his training. The 
first great point is obviously to ascertain 
the maximum speed, and the next to dis- 
cover how that is affected by weight : but 
here there are difficulties against which no 
judgment can provide, and which, when the 
best intentions have been acted upon, have 
led to false conclusions. The horse may 


not be quite up to his mark, on the day of 
trial or the horse, or horses, with which 
he is tried, may not be so ; the nature of 
the ground, and the manner of running it, 
may likewise not be suited to his capabilities 
or his action, and the trial and his race may 
be very differently run. The late Chifney, 
in his Genius Genuine, says the race-horse 
Magpie was a hundred and fifty or two 
hundred yards a better horse some days 
than others, in the distance of two miles ! 
Tiresias won the Derby for the Duke of 
Portland in a canter, to the ruin of many of 
the betting men, who thought his chance 
was gone from his previous trial with Snake, 
who beat him with much ease. It after- 
wards came out, that his being beaten at 
the trial had been owing to the incapacity 
of the boy who rode him and he was a 
bad horse to ride : indeed, we remember 
his taking old Clift, his jockey, nearly into 
Epsom town before he could pull him up, 
after winning the race. We are compelled, 
however, to observe, that much deception 
in late years has been resorted to, by false 
accounts of trials, and thereby making 
horses favourites for the great stakes as 


in the instances of Panic, Premier, Swap, 
the General, Prince Llewellyn, and others 
some of whom were found to be as bad as 
they had been represented to be good. But 
the trial of trials took place many years 
back at Newmarket, in the time of George i. 
A match was made between the notorious 
Tregonwell Frampton and Sir W. Strick- 
land, to run two horses over Newmarket 
heath for a considerable sum of money : 
and the betting was heavy between the 
north and south-country sportsmen on the 
event. After Sir W. Strickland's horse had 
been a short time at Newmarket, Frampton's 
groom, with the knowledge of his master, 
endeavoured to induce the baronet's groom 
to have a private trial, at the weights and 
distance of the match, and thus to make the 
race safe. Sir William's man had the 
honesty to inform his master of the pro- 
posal, when he ordered him to accept it, 
but to be sure to deceive the other by 
putting seven pounds more weight in the 
stuffing of his own saddle. Frampton s 
groom had already done the same thing, and 
in the trial, Merlin, Sir William's horse, 
beat his opponent about a length. * Now,' 


said Frampton to his satellite, ' my fortune 
is made, and so is yours ; if our horse can 
run so near Merlin with seven pounds 
extra, what will he do in the race ? ' The 
betting became immense. The south- 
country turfites, who had been let into the 
secret by Frampton, told those from the 
north, that ( they would bet them gold 
against Merlin while gold they had, and 
then they might sell their land/ Both 
horses came well to the post, and of course 
the race came off like the trial. 

The Jockey Club law is very strict as to 
trials at Newmarket, notice being obliged 
to be given to the keeper of the trial-book 
within one hour after the horses have been 
tried, enforced by a penalty of ten pounds 
for neglecting it ; and any person detected 
watching a trial is very severely dealt with. 
Nevertheless, formerly, watching trials was 
a trade at Newmarket, nor is it quite done 
away with at the present day ; though we 
have reason to believe that the bettor who 
should trust much to information obtained 
by such means would very soon break down. 
It often happens, that the jockeys who ride 
trials know nothing of the result beyond 


the fact of which horses run fastest, as they 
are kept in ignorance of the weight they 
carry a good load of shot being fre- 
quently concealed in the stuffing of their 

In later times than these, we have heard 
of more than one good ruse de guerre being 
practised at Newmarket ; whereby, accord- 
ing to the old adage, the biter was bitten, 
and deservedly bitten too. The late Earl of 
Grosvenor had a horse heavily engaged at 
the Craven meeting, and a few days before 
he was to run a report was circulated that 
he coughed. But whence the report ? Why 
a man had been hired, by a party, to lie all 
night on the roof of his box to ascertain the 
fact which he proclaimed. His authority, 
however, being doubted, another worthy 
was employed to perform the same office 
on the following night; which, coming to 
the ears of the trainer, was immediately 
reported to his noble employer. ' Have we 
no horse that coughs?' inquired his lord- 
ship. 'We have one, my lord,' was the 
reply. 'Then/ said his lordship, Met him 
be put into the box over which the fellow 
is to pass the night; and if he does not 


catch his death from this cold north-east 
wind and sleet, we shall do very well.' Of 
course the odds became heavy against the 
horse, from the report of this second herald ; 
and his lordship pocketed a large sum by 
his horse, who won his race with ease. 
Still later, indeed (the parties being now 
alive the one, no other than Mr. Wilson, 
the oldest member of the Jockey Club; 
and the other, a noble duke, but then a 
noble viscount), a very fair advantage was 
taken of a report circulated by the means 
of one of these watchers, vulgarly called 
1 touters.' Mr. Wilson was about to try a 
two-year colt, and had entered his trial for 
the morrow. * We must not try to-morrow, 
sir,' said his trainer. 'Why not?' inquired 
Mr. Wilson. ' We shall be watched, sir/ 
replied the trainer ; ' and the old horse's 
(i.e. the trial horse) white fore-leg will be 
sure to let out the cat.' * Leave that to 
me,' said Mr. Wilson; 'I shall be at the 
stable before you get out with the horses.' 
And, coming prepared with the materials 
for the purpose, he painted the white fore- 
leg of the old horse black, and the fellow 
one of the colt white ; and so they went to 


the ground. The old one, as may be 
supposed, ran the fastest and longest ; but, 
being mistaken by the 'touter 7 for the 
young one, his fame soon spread abroad, 
and he was sold the next day to the noble 
viscount for fifteen hundred guineas, being 
somewhere about eleven hundred more than 
he was worth. But the march of intellect 
and roguery, which appears to have run a 
dead heat on the turf, has made people 
wiser and sharper respecting such matters 
as these. The Marquis of Exeter keeps his 
trying saddles under his own locks ; and 
has a machine for weighing his trial riders, 
which shows the weights to himself, and to 
no one but himself. 1 

But to return for a moment to the effect 
of weight on the race-horse. Perhaps an 
instance of the most minute observation of 
this effect is to be found in a race at 
Newcastle-under-Lyne, some years back, 
between four horses handicapped by the 
celebrated Dr. Bellyse, namely, Sir John 

1 The uninitiated in these matters are not perhaps 
aware that horses are often matched at Newmarket for 
large sums, though with the certainty of losing, merely 
for the advantage of a trial with a good horse. 


Egerton's Astbury, four years old, eight 
stone six pounds ; Mr. Mytton's Handel, 
four years old, seven stone eleven pounds; 
Sir William Wynne's Taragon, four years 
old, eight stone; Sir Thomas Stanley's 
Cedric, three years old, six stone thirteen 
pounds. The following was the result : Of 
the first three heats there was no winner, 
Taragon and Handel being each time nose 
and nose; and although Astbury is stated 
to have been third the first heat, yet he was 
so nearly on a level with the others, that 
there was a difficulty in placing him as 
such. After the second heat, Mr. Littleton, 
who was steward, requested the Doctor and 
two other gentlemen to look steadfastly 
at the horses, and try to decide in favour 
of one of them ; but it was impossible to 
do so. In the third dead heat, Taragon and 
Handel had struggled with each other till 
they reeled about like drunken men, and 
could scarcely carry their riders to the 
scales. Astbury, who had laid by after the 
first heat, then .came out and won ; and it 
is generally believed the annals of the turf 
cannot produce such a contest as this* So 
much for a good handicap, formed on a 


thorough knowledge of the horses, their 
ages, and their public running. 

Taking into consideration the immense 
sums of money run for by English race- 
horses, the persons that ride them form an 
important branch of society ; and although 
the term ' jockey' is often used in a meta- 
phorical sense, in allusion to the unfair 
dealings of men, yet there ever have been, 
and now are, jockeys of high moral char- 
acter, whom nothing would induce to do 
wrong. Independently of trustworthiness, 
their avocation requires a union of the 
following not everyday qualifications : con- 
siderable bodily power in a very small 
compass/ much personal intrepidity; a 
kind of habitual insensibility to provoca- 
tion, bordering upon apathy, which no 
efforts of an opponent, in a race, can get 
the better of; and an habitual check upon 
the tongue. Exclusive of the peril with 
which the actual race is attended, his 
profession lays a heavy tax on the con- 
stitution. The jockey must not only at 
times work hard, but the hardest of all 
tasks he must work upon an empty 
stomach. During his preparation for the 


race, he must have the abstinence of an 
Asiatic ; indeed, it too often happens that 
at meals he can only be a spectator we 
mean during the period of his wasting. 
To sum up all he has to work hard, and 
to deprive himself of every comfort, risking 
his neck into the bargain ; and for what ? 
Why, for five guineas if he wins, and three 
if he loses a race, although they occasionally 
receive handsome presents from the owners 
of winning horses. The famous Pratt, the 
jockey of the no less famous little Gimcrack 
(of whom, man and horse, there is a fine 
portrait by Stubbs), rode eleven races over 
the Beacon course in one day ; making, with 
returning to the post on his hack, a distance 
of eighty-eight miles in his saddle : yet what 
was this when compared with theOsbaldeston 

Of course we must go to Newmarket for 
the elite of this fraternity ; and this reminds 
us that Francis Buckle is not there. He is 
in his grave ; but he has left behind him 
not merely an example for all young jockeys 
to follow, but proof that honesty is the best 
policy ; for he died in the esteem of all the 
racing world, and in the possession of a 


comfortable independence, acquired by his 
profession. What the Greeks said of 
Fabricius might be said of him that it 
would have been as difficult to have turned 
the sun from its course, as to have turned 
him from his duty; and, having said this, 
we should like to say a little more of him. 
He was the son of a saddler, at Newmarket, 
no wonder he was so good on the saddle, 
and commenced in the late Honourable 
Richard Vernon's stables at a very early 
age. He rode the winners of five Derby, 
seven Oaks, and two St. Leger stakes, 
besides, to use his own words, ' most of 'the 
good things at Newmarket^ in his time ; but 
it was in 1802 that he so greatly distinguished 
himself at Epsom, by taking long odds that 
he won both Derby and Oaks, on what were 
considered very unlikely horses to win either. 
His Derby horse was the Duke of Grafton's 
Tyrant, with seven to one against him, beat- 
ing Mr. Wilson's Young Eclipse, considered 
the best horse of his year. Young Eclipse 
made the play, and was opposed by Sir 
Charles Bunbury's Orlando, who contested 
every inch of ground with him for the first 
mile. From Buckle's fine judgment of pace, 


he was convinced they must both stop ; so, 
following, and watching them with Tyrant, 
he came up and won, to the surprise of all 
who saw him, with one of the worst horses 
that ever won a Derby. The following year, 
Young Eclipse beat Tyrant, giving him four 
pounds. Buckle, having made one of his 
two events safe, had then a fancy that Mr. 
WastelPs Scotia could win the Oaks, if he 
were on her back; and he got permission 
to ride her. She was beaten three times 
between Tattenhants corner and home ; but 
he got her up again in front, and won the 
race by a head. The Newmarket people 
declared they had never seen such a race 
before, snatched out of the fire, as it were, 
by fine riding. In another place (Lewes), 
he won an extraordinary race against a horse 
of the late Mr. Durand's, on which he had 
a considerable sum of money depending ; 
thus winning his race, but losing his money. 
He rode Sancho, for Mr. Mellish, in his 
great match with Pavilion, and was winning 
it when his horse broke down. He also 
won the Doncaster St. Leger with Sancho. 

Buckle, as we have already said, com*- 
menced riding exercise at a very early age ; 


but his first appearance in public was on 
Mr. Vernon's bay colt, Wolf, in 1783, when 
he rode one pound short of four stone, with 
his saddle. He soon entered the service of 
the late Earl Grosvenor, with whom he 
remained to his, the earl's, death. His 
weight was favourable, being seldom called 
upon to reduce himself, as he could ride 
seven stone eleven pounds with ease. He 
continued riding in public until past his 
sixty-fifth year, and his nerve was good even 
to the last, although, as might be expected, 
he was latterly shy of a crowd ; and generally 
cast an eye to the state of the legs and feet, 
when asked to ride a horse he did not know. 
His jockeying Green Mantle, however, for 
Lord Exeter, in the Second October Meeting, 
1828, and winning with her, after the tricks 
she played him before starting, showed that 
even then his courage was unshaken. But it 
is not only in public, but in private life, that 
Buckle stood well. He was a kind father 
and husband, and a good master ; and his 
acts of charity were conspicuous for a person 
in his situation of life, who might be said to 
have gotten all he possessed, first by the 
sweat of his brow, and then at the risk of 


his life. In a short biographical sketch of 
him, his little peculiarities are noticed in 
rather an amusing style. * He was,' says 
his biographer, 1 ' a great patron of the sock 
and buskin, and often bespoke plays for the 
night in country towns. He was a master 
of hounds, a breeder of greyhounds, fight- 
ing-cocks, and bull-dogs (proh pudor /), and 
always celebrated for his hacks. In the 
language of the stud-book, his first wife had 
no produce, but out of the second he had 
several children. We may suppose he chose 
her as he would a race-horse, for she was 
not only very handsome, but very good.' 
He left three sons, who are comfortably and 
respectably settled in life one a solicitor, 
one a druggist, and the other a brewer. 
1 Young Buckle' is his nephew, and con- 
sidered a fair jockey, though he does not 
ride so often as his uncle was called upon 
to do. But Frank Buckles are scarce. 

The present Samuel Chifney presents the 
beau ideal of a jockey elegance of seat, 
perfection of hand, judgment of pace, all 

1 Nimrod. Vide Old Sporting Magazine, vol. xiy., 
No. 81, June 1824 ; also New Sporting Magazine, 
vol. iii., No. 13, May 1832. 


united, and power in his saddle beyond any 
man of his weight that ever yet sat in one. 
It is scarcely necessary to add, that he is son 
of the late celebrated jockey of his name, 
by the daughter of a training-groom, con- 
sequently well bred for his profession, to 
which he is a first-rate ornament. Such 
a rider as James Robinson may slip him, 
but no man can struggle with him at the 
end; and his efforts in his saddle, during 
the last few strides of his horse, are quite 
without example. There are, however, 
peculiarities in his riding: excellent judge 
as he is of what his own horse and others 
are doing in a race, and in a crowded 
one too, he is averse to making running, 
sometimes even to a fault. Let whatever 
number of horses start, Chifney is almost 
certain to be amongst the last until towards 
the end of the race, when he creeps up to 
his brother jockeys in a manner peculiarly 
his own. But it is in the rush he makes 
at the finish that he is so pre-eminent, ex- 
hibiting, as we said before, powers unex- 
ampled by any one. His riding his own 
horse, Zinganee, for the Claret stakes 
(Craven Meeting, 1829), was a fine speci- 


men of his style, when contending against 
Buckle on Rough Robin, and James Robin- 
son on Cadland, and winning, to the 
astonishment of the field. In height he 
is about five feet seven, rather tall for a 
jockey, and not a good waster. In fact, 
he has been subject to much punishment 
to get to the Derby weight. Samuel does 
not ride often ; but whenever he does, his 
horse rises in the market, as was the case 
with his father before him at one period of 
his life. 

Some anecdotes are related of Chifney, 
confirming his great coolness in a race, and 
among others the following : Observing a 
young jockey (a son of the celebrated Clift) 
making very much too free with his horse, 
he addressed him thus : * Where are you 
going, boy? Stay with me, and you'll be 
second? The boy drew back his horse, and 
a fine race ensued, but when it came to 
a struggle we need not say who won it. 
Chifney's method of finishing his race is 
the general theme of admiration on the 
turf. * Suppose/ says he, ' a man has been 
carrying a stone, too heavy to be pleasant, 
in one hand, would he not find much ease 


by shifting it into the other? Thus, after 
a jockey has been riding over his horse's 
fore-legs for a couple of miles, must it not 
be a great relief to him when he sits back 
in his saddle, and, as it were, divides the 
weight more equally? But caution is re- 
quired/ he adds, 'to preserve a due equili- 
brium, so as not to disturb the action of 
a tired horse. 7 Without doubt, this cele- 
brated performer imbibed many excellent 
lessons from his father, but he has been 
considered the more powerful jockey of the 

James Robinson, also the son of a train- 
ing groom, is a jockey of the highest cele- 
brity, and, as far as the art of horsemanship 
extends, considered the safest rider of a 
race of the present day. He may owe 
much of his celebrity to his having, when 
a boy, had the advantage of being in the 
stables of Mr. Robson, the chief of the 
Newmarket trainers, and riding many of 
the trials of his extensive and prosperous 
studs. When we state that such a rider 
as Robinson is considered equal to the 
allowance of three pounds weight to his 
horse, we can account for his having been 


employed by the first sportsmen of the 
day. It is supposed that he has ridden 
the winners of more great races than any 
jockey of his time. In 1827 he won the 
Derby on Mameluke, and the St. Leger on 
Matilda ; receiving one thousand pounds 
from a Scotch gentleman (a great winner) 
as a reward for the latter : and in the 
following year he went a step beyond this ; 
he won Derby, Oaks, and was married 
all in the same week, fulfilling, as some 
asserted, a prediction according to other 
authorities, a bet. We may also notice his 
kindness towards his family, which we have 
reason to believe is most creditable to him. 
As a jockey he is perfect. His brother, 
Thomas Robinson, lives with, and rides 
for, Lord Henry Seymour, in France; as 
likewise does young Flatman, better known 
at Newmarket as brother to Natt, whose 
name is Flatman. 

William Clift is next entitled to notice, 
as one of the oldest, the steadiest, and best 
of the Newmarket jockeys, and famed for 
riding trials ; but he has taken leave of the, 
saddle. William Arnull, lately deceased, 
rode for most of the great sportsmen of 


the day at Newmarket, and was considered 
particularly to excel in matches. He was 
much afflicted with gout, but when well 
was a fine rider, and steady and honest, 
as his father was before him. Being occa- 
sionally called upon to waste, he felt the 
inconvenience of his disorder, and the 
following anecdote is related of him : 
Meeting an itinerant piper towards the end 
of a long and painful walk, 'Well, old 
boy,' said he, ( I have heard that music 
cheers the weary soldier; why should it 
not enliven the wasting jockey? 1 Come, 
play a tune, and walk before me to New- 
market/ Perhaps he had been reading the 
Mourning Bride. 

A good name is as a precious oint- 
ment/ and by uniform correct conduct in 
the saddle, as well as in the stable, John 
Day a very celebrated jockey has ac- 
quired that of * honest John.' The endow- 
ments of nature are not always hereditary, 
and well for our hero that they are not, for 
he is the son of a man who weighed twenty 
stone, whereas he himself can ride seven ! 
His winning the Newmarket Oatlands on 

1 ' Music has charms ! ' 


Pastime, with nine stone six pounds on her 
back, is considered his chef-cTceuvre. He 
resides at Stockbridge, in Hampshire, where 
he has a very large public training estab- 
lishment, and several race-horses of his 
own. Samuel Day, his brother, is also a 
jockey of great ability, and a singularly 
elegant horseman, with remarkably fine 
temper; but he has lately declined riding 
in public. Wheatley is the son of an 
eminent jockey of that name, who rode 
for the celebrated O'Kelly, and contem- 
porary with South and Pratt. He is a fine 
horseman; and esteemed a dangerous op- 
ponent in a race, by reason of his tact in 
creeping up to his horses when little thought 
on, and winning when least expected : he 
is likewise a severe punisher when punish- 
ment is wanted, and has a character free 
from taint. He has ridden Mameluke in 
some of his best races, and exhibited a rare 
specimen of his art in the ever-memorable 
contest between that fine race-horse and 
Zinganee, with Chifney on his back, for 
the Ascot cup, 1829. Ascot Heath never 
was honoured before by so many good 
horses, and, alas ! never again by the 


presence of George iv. George Dockeray 
stood high on the list as a powerful and 
good horseman, with excellent nerve in a 
crowd ; but, being a bad waster, and much 
punished to bring himself to the three-year- 
old weights, he has given up riding in public. 
Frank Boyce was very good, and esteemed 
an excellent starter, a great advantage in 
the short races of the present day. 1 Richard, 
or Young Boyce, as he is called at New- 
market, a very pretty horseman, with a good 
head, has now given up riding, owing to 
being too heavy. Conolly, who has been 
riding successfully for Lords Chesterfield 
and Verulam, is in high repute at New- 
market. He has a bad Irish seat, but he is 
very strong upon his horse, and his hand 
and head are good. Wright is also a steady 
good rider, and comes light to the scale. 
He was very successful on Crutch. Natt, 
or Flatman (his surname), is a very improv- 
ing jockey, and is engaged by the Earl of 
Chesterfield. James Chappie, very good 
and very light, seven stone without wasting, 

1 This eminent jockey died in November, 1836, at 
Newmarket in his thirty-ninth year, with a character 
quite free from reproach. 


rode the winner of Derby and Oaks in 1833. 
Arthur Pavis has the call for the light weights 
at Newmarket. He is in very high practice 
in public and private ; and never being called 
upon to waste, is in great request, and 
perhaps rides more races in the year, and 
winning ones, too, than any other jockey in 
England. As practice makes perfect, Pavis 
is approaching perfection, and bids fair to 
arrive at it. He has a very elegant seat, 
being cast in the mould for a jockey, and 
is very full of power for his size. His 
brother, Edgar, is principal jockey for his 
Royal Highness the Duke of Orleans in 
France, and rides light and well. Another 
of the clever light weights is Samuel Mann 
the lightest man of all his Newmarket 
brethren, and of course very often em- 
ployed. Macdonald, another Newmarket 
jockey, is a very superior horseman, whose 
skill is not confined to the turf. He is 
famed for riding and driving trotting matches 
having ridden Driver against Rattler, and 
driven Mr. Payne's Rochester against Rattler 
in the disputed match. He has capital 
nerve, and shines upon savage horses, which 
many would be unwilling to encounter. 


Darling, a very eminent country jockey, has 
lately been riding for Lord Exeter at New- 
market, where we hope he will be often em- 
ployed, as he has been very true to his 
masters, Messrs. Houldsworth, Ormsby 
Gore, and others. 

The name of Goodison has been long 
associated with Newmarket ; the late 
Richard Goodison having been so many 
years rider to the Duke of Queensberry, 
with whom the present jockey, Thomas 
Goodison, began, by riding the late Duke 
of Bedford's chestnut colt, Cub, by Fidget, 
in the Houghton Meeting in 1794, and 
signalised himself by winning the famous 
match on Pecker against Bennington in 
1795, B. C., five hundred guineas a side, 
then riding only four stone one pound, and 
six to four on him at starting. His father 
accompanied him on a thorough-bred horse 
during the latter part of the race, as he was 
riding against an experienced jockey, and 
perhaps his instructions enabled him to 
win. Thomas Goodison rode much for the 
late King ; but his ' first master/ as the 
term is, was the late Duke of York, for 
whom he won many great races, and par- 


ticularly distinguished himself by winning 
the Claret stakes with Moses (with whom 
he also won the Derby), in the Craven 
Meeting of 1823, beating Morisco, Pos- 
thuma, and three other good ones, by ex- 
treme judgment in riding the race. He has 
ever been distinguished for his patience and 
decision, and the turf lost a first-rate jockey 
when he retired. 

There are more Edwardses at Newmarket 
than there were Caesars at Rome ; and they 
all ride, as it were, by instinct. James, or 
Tiny Edwards, as he is called, par excellence, 
of course, is father of all the jockeys that 
bear that name, and also of William, formerly 
a jockey, who trained for his late majesty, 
and has a pension and part of the palace 
and stables at Newmarket as his reward. 
James trains for the Earl of Jersey, and is 
considered first-rate, and particularly so in 
his preparation for the Derby course. The 
cleverest of the jockeys is Harry, the one- 
eyed man, who lived with the late Earl 
Fitzwilliam, a very elegant horseman ; and 
our Caledonian friends will not forget his 
winning the King's Plate on Terror. JHe 
has now retired from the turf, and practises 


as a veterinary surgeon at Carlisle. George 
is likewise very good, as are Charles and 
Edward, young ones, not forgetting Frederick, 
little better than a child, but with the seat 
of an old man. When his late majesty saw 
his own horses mixed with Lord Jersey's at 
Ascot, and the answer to every question of 
'Who is that?' was 'Edwards'; 'Bless 
me,' exclaimed the king, 'what lots of 
jockeys that woman breeds!' It happens, 
however, that they are the produce of three 
different marriages ; so the glories come, 
as Garter would say, from the baron^ not 
the femme. We are sorry to say Samuel 
Barnard has lost his eyesight. He was a 
steady, good jockey, and rode for the Duke 
of Rutland, Lord Henry Fitzroy, and several 
of the best sportsmen on Newmarket 
heath. But we must not conclude without 
mentioning Old Forth, as he is called, who 
won the Derby in 1829, at the age of sixty, 
with a horse very little thought of before 
starting. He won a very large sum of money 
on the event, and has now a string of horses 
in training; and rode a capital race at 
Stockbridge in the present year. 

It is said of the Yorkshire jockeys, that 

THE TURF ^ 57 

they should come to Newmarket for a seat. 
It is true they do not appear to such 
advantage in the saddle as their brethren of 
the south, nor, speaking generally, are they 
equal to them in their calling; but many 
very excellent jockeys have always been 
to be found in the north. At the head of 
these now alive is the noted Billy Pierse, 
who used to ride Haphazard for the Duke 
of Cleveland. Having feathered his nest 
well, he has retired, but is remarkable for 
the hospitality of his house, situated in the 
town of Richmond. Robert Johnson is 
likewise one of the oldest, best, and we 
may add, most successful of the northern 
jockeys, having ridden Doctor Syntax 
throughout his glorious career, and been 
four times winner of the St. Leger stakes ; 
but John Jackson eclipsed him, having 
experienced that honour no less than as 
often again a circumstance unparalleled 
among jockeys; and he very nearly won 
it a ninth time, on Blacklock. Johnson 
trained and rode Galopade for Mr. Riddell, 
the winner of the Doncaster cup. John 
Shepherd, an old jockey, is still alive, keep- 
ing a public-house at Malton. Shepherd 


was supposed to be the best judge of pace 
in a four-mile race of any man of his time. 
We are sorry to hear that John Mangle, 
another eminent Yorkshire jockey, is blind. 
He won the St. Leger five times ; three in 
succession, for the Duke of Hamilton, and, 
in all, four times for his grace. Ben Smith 
has retired, rich ; but the renowned John 
Singleton, one of the riders of Eclipse, and 
the first winner of the Doncaster St. Leger, 
1776, for the late Lord Rockingham, died 
a pauper in Chester workhouse. 

George Nelson is a very conspicuous 
man among the northern jockeys, and the 
more so, as having been thought worthy of 
being transplanted to the south to ride for 
his late majesty, in the room of the second 
best jockey at Newmarket, viz., Robinson. 
Nelson was brought up by the late Earl of 
Scarborough, in whose opinion he stood 
high, and his lordship confirmed it by a 
pension. He won the St. Leger for the 
Earl, on Tarrare, a very unexpected event. 
He was likewise very successful in his exer- 
tions for his late majesty, from whom he 
also had his reward ; but his great perform- 
ances were on Lottery, Fleur-de-lis, and 


Minna, having never been beaten on the 
first two, and winning no less than eight 
times in one year on the latter. He first 
distinguished himself in a race at York, 
when riding only five stone four pounds. 
Tommy Lye, as he is called, is a very 
celebrated northern jockey, a great winner 
for the Duke of Cleveland and others ; he 
rides very light, and very well. Temple- 
man, the Duke of Leeds' rider, and Thomas 
Nicholson, also stand high. But the Chif- 
ney of the north is William Scott, and, 
perhaps, for hand, seat, and science in a 
race, he is not much inferior to any one. 
He rode St. Giles, the winner of the Derby 
in 1832, for Mr. Ridsdale, and won the 
St. Leger for Mr. Watt once, on Memnon, 
and for Mr. Petre twice, viz., with the 
Colonel and Rowton. He also won the 
Derby on Mundig, 1835, f r Mr. Bowes, 
with great odds against him ; and the Oaks, 
1836, on Cyprian, the joint property of 
himself and his brother. Very excellent 
prints of Rowton and Mundig and himself 
have been published by Ackermann, from 
a painting by Ferneley and Hancock. 'But 
such men as Scott, Chifney, Robinson, and 


Pavis generally appear to advantage; they 
are in great request, and consequently are 
put on the best horses in the race, and 
have the best chance to distinguish them- 
selves. William Scott is possessed of con- 
siderable property (part in right of his 
wife), and is brother to the well-known 
Yorkshire trainer of his name. 

Every trade, profession, or pursuit, opens, 
in its own peculiar circle of habits, a dis- 
tinct subject of study ; and perhaps the 
existence of the Newmarket stable-boy, a 
thing on which the majority of our readers 
have never spent a thought, might, as 
painted by Holcroft, interest them more 
than the most accurate delineation of many 
higher modes and aspects of life. In that 
able writer's Memoirs the genuine and 
really valuable part of them all this is 
capitally described, from his first arrival 
at Newmarket to his final departure, at the 
age of sixteen ; from his fall off Mr. Wood- 
cock's iron-grey filly, in his novitiate, to his 
being one of the best exercise-riding boys 
in the town ; until all his equestrian hopes 
were ruined by 'idling away his time in 
reading/ as he was emphatically told by 


his master; by his spelling a word of six 
syllables, to the surprise of his drunken 
schoolmaster ; by his being detected in study- 
ing Arnold's Psalmody, under the guidance 
of the journeyman leather-breeches maker ; 
and, lastly, in casting up figures on the 
stable-doors with a nail, from which the 
other boys, and the old housekeeper to 
boot, augured his very soon running 

Although, to use his own words, Hoi- 
croft scarcely saw a biped at Newmarket 
in whom he could find anything to admire, 
and despised his companions for the gross- 
ness of all their ideas, he had no reason to 
complain of his treatment by the several 
masters whom he served, and especially by 
Mr. Woodcock. 

He discovered a little too late that the 
dark-grey filly and I could not be trusted 
safely together. But though he turned me 
away, he did not desert me. He recom- 
mended me to the service of a little de- 
formed groom, remarkably long in the fork, 
I think by the name of Johnstone, who 
was esteemed an excellent rider, and had 
a string of no less than thirteen famous 


horses, the property of the Duke of Grafton, 
under his care. This was acknowledged 
to be a service of great repute; but the 
shrewd little groom soon discovered that I 
had all my trade to learn, and I was again 

After bewailing his misfortune of being 
out of place and so far from home in forma 
pauperis^ he thus proceeds : 

4 1 know not where I got the information, 
nor how, but in the very height of my dis- 
tress I heard that Mr. John Watson, train- 
ing and riding-groom to Captain Vernon, 
a gentleman of acute notoriety on the turf, 
and in partnership with Lord March, now 
Duke of Queensberry, was in want of, but 
just then found it difficult to procure, a 
stable-boy. To make this pleasing intel- 
ligence more welcome, the general character 
of John Watson was, that though he was 
one of the first grooms in Newmarket, he 
was remarkable for being good-tempered ; 
yet the manner in which he disciplined his 
boys, though mild, was effectual, and few 
were in better repute. One consequence 
of this, however, was, that if any lad was 
dismissed by John Watson, it was not easy 


for him to find a place. 1 With him Jack 
Clarke lived, the lad with whom I came 
from Nottingham ; this was another fortun- 
ate circumstance, and contributed to in- 
spire me with confidence. My present 
hopes were so strongly contrasted with my 
late fears, that they were indeed enviable. 
To speak for once in metaphor, I had been 
as one of those who walk in the shadow of 
the valley of death ; an accidental beam of 
sun broke forth, and I had a beatific view 
of heaven. 

* It was no difficult matter to meet with 
John Watson : he was so attentive to stable- 
hours that, except on extraordinary occa- 
sions, he was always to be found. Being 
first careful to make myself look as much 
like a stable-boy as I could, I came at the 
hour of four (the summer hour for opening 
the afternoon stables, giving a slight feed 
of oats, and going out to evening exercise), 
and ventured to ask if I could see John 
Watson. The immediate answer was in 
the affirmative. John Watson came, looked 

1 This is still the case at Newmarket. No trainer 
will take a boy that offers himself until his late master 
has been consulted. 


at me with a serious but good-natured 
countenance, and accosted me with, "Well, 
my lad, what is your business ? I suppose 
I can guess; you want a place?" "Yes, 
sir." " Who have you lived with ? " " Mr. 
Woodcock on the forest. One of your 
boys, Jack Clarke, brought me with him 
from Nottingham." " How came you to 
leave Mr. Woodcock?" "I had a sad fall 
from an iron-grey filly that almost killed 
me." "That's bad, indeed; and so you 
left him?" "He turned me away, sir" 
"That's honest. I like your speaking the 
truth. So you are come from him to me?" 
At this question I cast my eyes down, and 
hesitated, then fearfully answered, "No, 
sir." "No ! what, change masters twice in 
so short a time ? " "I can't help it, sir, if 
I am turned away." This last answer made 
him smile. " Where are you now, then ? " 
"Mr. Johnstone gave me leave to stay with 
the boys a few days." "That's a good 
sign. I suppose you mean little Mr. John- 
stone at the other end of the town?" 
"Yes, sir." "Well, as you have been so 
short a time in the stables, I am not sur- 
prised he should turn you away ; he would 


have everybody about him as clever as 
himself; they must all know their business 
thoroughly ; however, they must learn it 
somewhere. I will venture to give you a 
trial, but I must first inquire your character 
of my good friends Woodcock and John- 
stone. Come to-morrow morning at nine, 
and you shall have an answer." It may 
well be supposed I did not forget the 
appointment, and a fortunate one I found 
it, for I was accepted on trial, at four 
pounds or guineas a year, with the usual 
livery clothing/ 

It was in the service of John Watson 
that Holcroft became a horseman, and the 
exercise of his skill, in his contest with a 
certain strapping dun horse, is very amus- 
ingly told : 

'It was John Watson's general practice 
to exercise his horses over the flat, and up 
Cow-bridge hill; but the rule was not in- 
variable. One wintry day he ordered us 
up to the Bury hills. It mizzled a very 
sharp sleet ; the wind became uncommonly 
cutting, and Dun, being remarkable for a 
tender skin, found the wind and sleet, which 
blew directly up his nostrils, so very pain- 



ful, that it suddenly made him outrageous. 
He started from the rank in which he was 
walking, tried to unseat me, endeavoured 
to set off at full speed, and when he found 
he could not master me so as to get head, 
began to rear, snorting most violently, threw 
out behind, plunged, and used every mis- 
chievous exertion of which the muscular 
powers of a blood-horse are capable. I, 
who felt the uneasiness he suffered before 
his violence began, being luckily prepared, 
sat firm and as steady and upright as if 
this had been his usual exercise. John 
Watson was riding beside his horses, and a 
groom, I believe it was old Cheevers, broke 
out into an exclamation, "By G d, John, 
that's a fine lad!" "Ay, ay," replied 
Watson, highly satisfied, "you will find 
some time or other there are few in New- 
market that will match him." It will not 
be amiss here to remark, that boys with 
straight legs, small calves, and knees that 
project but little, seldom become excellent 
riders. I, on the other hand, was somewhat 
bow-legged; I had then the custom of 
turning in my toes, and my knees were 
protuberant. I soon learned that the safe 


hold for sitting steady was to keep the 
knee and the calf of the leg strongly pressed 
against the side of the animal that en- 
deavours to unhorse you ; and, as little 
accidents afford frequent occasions to re- 
mind boys of this rule, it becomes so rooted 
in the memory of the intelligent, that their 
anger is comparatively trifling.' 

Of the comparative good and bad temper 
of race-horses, the dramatist thus speaks : 

1 The majority of them are playful, but 
their gambols are dangerous to the timid or 
unskilful. They are all easily and suddenly 
alarmed when anything they do not under- 
stand forcibly catches their attention ; and 
they are then to be feared by the bad 
horseman, and carefully guarded against 
by the good. Very serious accidents have 
happened to the best. But, besides their 
general disposition to playfulness, there is 
a great propensity in them to become what 
the jockeys call vicious. Tom, the brother 
of Jack Clarke, after sweating a grey horse 
that belonged to Lord March, with whom 
he lived, while he was either scraping or 
dressing him, was seized by the animal by 
the shoulder, lifted from the ground and 


carried two or three hundred yards before 
the horse loosened his hold. Old Forester, 
a horse that belonged to Captain Vernon, 
all the while I remained at Newmarket was 
obliged to be kept apart, and to live at 
grass, where he was confined to a close 
paddock. Except Tom Watson, a younger 
brother of John, he would suffer no lad to 
come near him. If in his paddock, he 
would run furiously at the first person that 
approached; and if in the stable, would 
kick and assault every one within his reach. 
When I had been about a year and a half 
at Newmarket, Captain Vernon thought 
proper to match Forester against Elephant, 
a horse belonging to Sir Jennison Shafto, 
whom, by the bye, I saw ride this famous 
match. It was a four-mile heat over the 
straight course; and the abilities of Forester 
were such, that he passed the flat, ascended 
the hill as far as the distance post, nose to 
nose with Elephant, so that John Watson, 
who rode him, began to conceive hopes. 
Between this and the chair, Elephant, in 
consequence of hard whipping, got some 
little way before him, while Forester exerted 
every possible power to recover at least his 


lost equality; till finding all his efforts in- 
effectual, he made one sudden spring, and 
caught Elephant by the under jaw, which 
he gripped so violently as to hold him 
back; nor was it without the utmost diffi- 
culty that he could be forced to quit his 
hold. Poor Forester! he lost, but he lost 
most honourably. Every experienced groom 
thought it a most extraordinary circum- 
stance. 7 

Of the stable discipline among the boys, 
Holcroft gives the following little speci- 
men : 

*I remember to have been so punished 
once, with an ashen stick, for falling asleep 
in my horse's stall, that the blow, I con- 
cluded, was given by Tom Watson, as I 
thought no other boy in the stable could 
have made so large a wale ; it reached from 
the knee to the instep, and was of the 
finger's breadth. 7 

We conclude our extracts from this amus- 
ing history of a stable-boy's progress, with 
something like a shot at the march of the 
present very refined times : 

'I ought to mention, that though I have 
spoken of Mr. Johnstone, and may do of 


more Misters, it is only because I have 
forgotten their Christian names ; for, to the 
best of my recollection, when I was at 
Newmarket, it was the invariable practice 
to denominate each groom by his Christian 
and surname, unless any one happened to 
possess some peculiarities that marked him. 
I know not what appellations are given to 
grooms at Newmarket at the present day, 
but at the time I speak of, if any grooms 
had been called Misters, my master would 
have been among the number; and his 
appellation by everybody, except his own 
boys, who called him John, was John 

We have reason to believe there are no 
1 Johns' among the Newmarket trainers of 
these times, though we much doubt the 
benefit of the change to Mister, and all 
the appliances to boot. If we mistake not, 
Sir Charles Bunbury's training-groom wore 
livery to the last. At all events, New- 
market jockeys and their Jennys were not 
then to be seen in an Opera-box, which 
we find is no uncommon occurrence now. 
'A cow at the Opera* would have been 
considered equally in her element. 


Those who have only seen race-horses 
on a race-course would be surprised to 
witness what diminutive urchins ride many 
of them in their training, and the perfect 
command they obtain over them. In the 
neighbourhood of large racing establish- 
ments, the parents of poor children are 
glad to embrace an opportunity of putting 
them into the stables of a training-groom ; 
knowing that they are certain to be well 
fed and taken care of, with a fair chance 
of rising in the world. But the question 
that would suggest itself is, how are the 
poor little fellows made equal to the task 
of riding so highly spirited an animal as 
the race-horse in a few weeks after they 
are put to the task? The fact is, that Tom 
or Jack is little more than a looker-on for 
the first month or so. He makes the other 
lads' beds, and performs sundry odd jobs ; 
but then he has his eyes open (if he shows 
no signs of opening them, he is rejected 
in a twinkling), and he sees the other boys 
in their saddles, and observes the con- 
fidence with which they appear in them. 
After a certain time he is placed upon his 
master's hack, or a quiet pony, and becomes 


a spectator on the training-ground. So 
soon as he has the rudiments of hand and 
seat he is put on the quietest horse in the 
string generally one that has been some 
time in training, and has been doing good 
work who follows those that are before 
him, without attempting to swerve from 
the track, or to play any antic tricks. The 
head lad generally heads the gallop, being 
the best judge of pace, unless it be neces- 
sary to put him on some other horse which 
is difficult to ride, and not well calculated 
to lead. In that case he generally places 
himself second, so that he may instruct the 
boy before him ; but all this takes place 
under the watchful eye of the trainer. 

Order is the beauty and strength of 
society; and neither in school nor univer- 
sity is regularity of conduct more strictly 
enforced than in a training establishment. 
In fact, the soldier might as well absent 
himself from roll-call, or the sailor from 
his watch, as the stable-boy from the hour 
of stable. 'Woe to him/ says Holcroft, 
' who is absent from stable hours.' In the 
morning, however, he is sure to be there; 
for, in most cases, the horse he looks after 


reposes in the same chamber as himself. 
This is on a principle of prudence rather 
than of economy : horses in high condition 
are given to roll in the night, and get cast 
in their stalls, and here assistance is at 
hand; as, by the means of stirrup-leathers 
buckled together, they are extricated from 
their awkward situation by the joint efforts 
of the boys. We have been told that an 
interesting scene takes place on the waken- 
ing of the boys in the morning. The event 
is anxiously looked for by the horses, who, 
when they hear them awaken each other, 
neigh and denote their eagerness to be fed, 
which is the first step taken. The second 
is a proper arrangement of their beds, and 
then dressing and exercise. When they 
return home the horses are well dressed 
again ; the boys break their fast ; and Hoi- 
croft spoke from experience when he said, 
* Nothing can exceed the enjoyment of a stable- 
boy's breakfast.' 

Considering the prodigious number of 
race-horses in training, and that each horse 
has its lad, it is astonishing that rnore 
accidents do not occur. As we have before 
observed, almost all race-horses are playful 




and * horse play is rough/ But we do not 
wonder at their becoming vicious : highly 
bred as they are, hot in blood, and their 
tender and nearly hairless skins irritated 
by a coarse brush, and, after sweating, 
scraped with rather a sharp wooden in- 
strument, that, we repeat, is no wonder. 
Nevertheless, it seldom happens that they 
hurt the boys who look after them. Indeed, 
it is an interesting sight to witness a little 
urchin of a stable-boy approach, with perfect 
safety to himself, an animal that would 
perhaps be the death of the strongest man 
in the land who might be rash enough to 
place himself within his reach. To what 
shall we attribute this passive obedience 
of an animal of such vast power and proud 
spirit to a diminutive member of the crea- 
tion an abortion of nature, indeed, as we 
might be almost induced to call him 
whether to self-interest or to gratitude, to 
love or to fear, or to that unspeakable magic 
power which the Almighty has given to the 
eye and voice of even the child of man ? 

Precocity of intellect in a stunted frame 
is the grand desideratum in a Newmarket 
nursery, where chubby cheeks and the ' fine 


boy for his age ' would be reckoned defor- 
mities. There are some good specimens 
of the pigmy breed now at Newmarket; 
John Day, for instance, has produced a 
facsimile of himself, cast in the exact mould 
for the saddle, and who can ride about 
four stone. These feather-weights are abso- 
lutely necessary where two-year colts are 
brought to the post, and they sometimes 
ride a winning race ; though if it comes to a 
struggle, as the term is, they are almost 
certain to be defeated by the experienced 
jockey. But, speaking seriously, it is a 
great blessing to the rider of races to be 
of a diminutive size, to prevent the hardship 
and inconvenience of wasting a most 
severe tax on the constitution and temper. 
On this subject the following memorandum 
of some questions addressed by Sir John 
Sinclair to the late Mr. Sandiver, an eminent 
surgeon, long resident at Newmarket, and 
a pretty constant spectator of the races, with 
Mr. S.'s answers, may amuse our readers : 
' How long does the training of jockeys 
generally continue? With those in high 
repute, from about three weeks before 
Easter to the end of October ; but a week 


or ten days are quite sufficient for a rider 
to reduce himself from his natural weight 
to sometimes a stone and a half below it. 
What food do they live on ? For break- 
fast, a small piece of bread and butter, 
with tea in moderation. Dinner is taken 
very sparingly; a very small piece of pudding 
and less meat ; and when fish is to be 
obtained, neither one nor the other is 
allowed. Wine and water is the usual 
beverage, in the proportion of one pint 
to two of water. Tea in the afternoon, 
with little or no bread and butter, and no 
supper. What exercise do they get, and 
what hours of rest ? After breakfast, having 
sufficiently loaded themselves with clothes, 
that is, with five or six waistcoats, two 
coats, and as many pairs of breeches, a 
severe walk is taken, from ten to fifteen 
miles. After their return home, dry clothes 
are substituted for those that are wet with 
perspiration, and, if much fatigued, some 
of them lie down for an hour or so before 
their dinner; after which no severe exercise 
is taken, but the remaining part of the 
day is spent in a way most agreeable to 
themselves. They generally go to bed by 


nine o'clock, and continue there till six or 
seven next morning. What medicine do 
they take ? Some of them, who do not like 
excessive walking, have recourse to purgative 
medicines, Glauber salts only. Would Mr. 
Sandiver recommend a similar process to 
reduce corpulency in other persons? Mr. 
Sandiver would recommend a similar process 
to reduce corpulency in either sex, as the 
constitution does not appear to be injured 
by it; but he is apprehensive that hardly 
any person could be prevailed upon to 
submit to such severe discipline who had 
not been inured to it from his youth. The 
only additional information that Mr. Sandi- 
ver has the power to communicate is, that 
John Arnull, when rider to his Royal High- 
ness the Prince of Wales, was desired to 
reduce himself as much as he possibly could, 
to enable him to ride a particular horse, 
in consequence of which he abstained from 
animal, and even from farinaceous food, 
for eight successive days, and the only 
substitute was now and then an apple. 
He was not injured by it. Dennis Fitz- 
patrick, a person continually employed as 
a rider, declares that he is less fatigued, 


and has more strength to contend with a 
determined horse in a severe race, when 
moderately reduced, than when allowed to 
live as he pleased, although he never weighs 
more than nine stone, and has frequently 
reduced himself to seven.' l 

The present system of wasting varies 
from the one here described, and particu- 
larly as to the length of the walk, which 
appears to have been unnecessarily severe. 
The modern Newmarket jockey seldom 
exceeds four miles out, and then he has a 
house to stop at in which there is a large 
fire, by which the perspiration is very much 
increased. Indeed, it sometimes becomes 
so excessive, that he may be seen scraping 
it off the uncovered parts of his person 
after the manner in which the race-horse 
is scraped, using a small horn for the pur- 
pose. After sitting a while by the fire and 
drinking some diluted liquid, he walks back 
to Newmarket, swinging his arms as he 
proceeds, which increases the muscular 
action. Sufficiently cool to strip, his body 
is rubbed dry and fresh clothed, when, 

1 Arnull died at the age of 62; Fitzpatrick at 42, 
from a cold taken in wasting. 


besides the reduction of his weight, the 
effect is visible on his skin, which has a 
remarkably transparent hue. In fact, he 
may be said to show condition after every 
sweat, till he looks as sleek as the horse he 
is going to ride. But the most mortifying 
attendant upon wasting is the rapid accumu- 
lation of flesh immediately on a relaxation 
of the system, it having often happened 
that jockeys, weighing not more than seven 
stone, have gained as many pounds in one 
day, from merely obeying the common 
dictates of nature, committing no excess. 
Non misere vivit qui pard vtvit 1 is an 
acknowledged truism; but during the racing 
season, a jockey in high practice, who as 
is the case with Chifney, Robinson, Dockery, 
and Scott is naturally above our light 
racing weights, is subject to no trifling 
mortification. Like the good Catholic, 
however, when Lent expires, he feels him- 
self at liberty when the racing season is at 
an end ; and on the last day of the Hough- 
ton Meeting, Frank Buckle had always a 
goose for supper \ his labours for the season 
being then concluded. But it will naturally 
1 He does not live unhappily who lives sparingly. 


be asked how these persons employ or 
amuse themselves during the dead months, 
of which there are five. At Newmarket, 
we believe, just as they did in Holcroft's 
time, in visiting their friends, coursing, and 
cock-fighting the latter a favourite amuse- 
ment, but with no species of gambling, 
beyond a few shillings on the event of a 
course or a battle. A few also take the 
diversion of hunting, or any other outdoor 
amusement that keeps the body in play. 
Most of them have neat and well-furnished 
houses, and appear to enjoy the comforts 
of life. 

Among the conspicuous characters on the 
English turf of past and present days it is 
hard to say who stands foremost, but we 
suppose we must give the pas to the Duke 
of Cumberland, great uncle to his present 
majesty, as the breeder, and to Mr. O'Kelly, 
as the fortunate possessor of Eclipse, and 
other horses whose character and fame have 
never yet been eclipsed. It will also be 
remembered that the duke bred Marsk, the 
sire of Eclipse; and Herod, who not only, 
like Eclipse, beat every horse that could be 
brought against him, at four, five, and six 


years old, but transmitted a more numerous 
and better stock to posterity than any other 
horse ever did before, or has ever done 
since amongst others, Highflyer. From 
the death of Charles n. till the period of 
the duke's coming upon the turf, racing had 
languished, perhaps from want of more 
support from the crown and the higher 
aristocracy, and his royal highness was the 
man to revive it. 

1 But,' as has been observed, 'this was 
not effected without an immensity of ex- 
pense, and an incredible succession of losses 
to the sharks, Greeks, and blacklegs of that 
time, by whom his royal highness was sur- 
rounded, and, of course, incessantly pil- 
laged. Having, however, in the greatness 
of his mind, the military maxim of " per- 
severe and conquer," he was not deterred 
from the object of his pursuit, till, having 
just become possessed of the best stock, 
best blood, and most numerous stud in the 
kingdom, beating his opponents at all points, 
he suddenly "passed that bourne from 
whence no traveller returns," an irreparable 
loss to the turf, and universally lamented by 
the kingdom at large.' 


One of the heaviest matches of former or 
of present days was run at Newmarket, in 
1764, between his royal highnesses famous 
horse, King Herod, as he was then called, 
and the late Duke of Grafton's Antinous, 
by Blank, over the Beacon course, for one 
thousand pounds a side, and won by Herod 
by half a neck. Upwards of one hundred 
thousand pounds were depending on this 
event, and the interest created by it was 
immense. His royal highness was likewise 
the founder of the Ascot race meeting, now 
allowed to be only second to Newmarket. 

In point of judgment in racing, Mr. 
O'Kelly was undoubtedly the first man of 
his day ; although, were he to appear at the 
present time, it is admitted that he would 
have a good deal to learn. For example, 
his suffering Eclipse to distance his com- 
petitors, in a race for a bet, would be con- 
sidered the act of a novice. As a breeder, 
however, he became unequalled ; and from 
the blood of his Volunteer and Dungannon, 
in particular, the turf derived signal ad- 
vantage. Both were got by Eclipse, who 
was the sire of no less than one hundred 
and sixty winners, many of them the best 


racers of their day, such as Alexander and 
Meteor (the latter pre-eminent), Pot-8-o's, 
Soldier, Saltram, Mercury, Young Eclipse, 
etc. In 1793, Mr. O'Kelly advertised no less 
than forty-six in-foal mares for sale, chiefly 
by Volunteer and Dungannon, Eclipse 
being then dead, which fetched great prices, 
and were particularly sought after by his 
late majesty, then deeply engaged on the 
turf. It is confidently asserted, that O'Kelly 
cleared ten thousand pounds by the dam of 
Soldier, from her produce by Eclipse and 
Dungannon ; and his other mares, of which 
he had often fifty and upwards in his 
possession, were the source of immense 

As a breeder coeval with the royal duke 
and O'Kelly, the late Earl Grosvenor stands 
conspicuous. Indeed, we believe his lord- 
ship's stud for many years of his life was 
unrivalled in Europe ; but such are the ex- 
penses of a large breeding establishment, 
that although he was known to have won 
nearly two hundred thousand pounds on the 
race-course, the balance was said to be against 
him at the last ! Earl Grosvenor, however, 
was a great ornament to the English turf; 


he ran his horses honestly and truly, and 
supported the country races largely. His 
three famous stud-horses were John Bull, 
Alexander, and Meteor, the latter by Eclipse, 
and the two former perhaps the largest and 
the noblest thorough-bred horses ever seen 
in England, and the sires of many good 
ones ; but his two best racers were Meteora, 
not fifteen hands high, and Violante; the 
latter the best four-miler of her day. 1 The 
earl was the first patron of Stubbs, the horse- 
painter, whose pencil may be said to have 
founded a new branch of the art in this 
country, on which the painters of the present 
day have improved, adhering more closely 
to nature than their exemplar. The late 
Duke of Bedford was likewise a great patron 
of the turf previously to his taking to farm- 
ing, and had more than thirty horses in 
training at one time. Among these was 
Grey Diomed, remarkable for his races with 
Escape and Traveller at Newmarket; also 
Skyscraper, Fidget, and Dragon. 2 His 

1 Francis Buckle always insisted on John Bull having 
been the best horse, and Violante the best mare he ever 
rode over a course. 

2 The grandfather of Mr. Stevens, the trainer, late 
of Bourton-on-the-Hill, but now of Ilsley, Berk- 


grace was a great loser, and probably retired 
in disgust. Charles Fox was also deep in 
the mysteries of the turf, and a very heavy 
bettor. The father of the present Prince 
(the trainer) trained for him, and South 
and Chifney were his jockeys ; but the dis- 
temper in his stables ruined his stud. These 
were also the days of the then Dukes of 
Kingston, Cleveland, Ancaster, Bridgewater, 
and Northumberland; Lords Rockingham, 
Bolingbroke, Chedworth,B anymore, Ossory, 
Abingdon, and Foley; Messrs. Shafto, 
Wentworth, Panton, Smith Barry, Ralph 
Button, Wildman, Meynell, Bullock, and 
others, who were running their thousand- 
guinea matches, and five hundred-guinea 
sweepstakes, most of them over the Beacon 
course, and with the finest horses perhaps 
the world ever saw; and also, considering 
the difference in the value of money, for 
nearly as large stakes as those of present 
times, a few only excepted. 

Another of the noted turf characters of 
those days was the Honourable Richard 

shire, where, perhaps, is the best ground in 
England for the purpose, trained those celebrated 


Vernon, commonly called Dick Vernon, 
owner of the famous horse Woodpecker, 
with whom he won the Craven Stakes no 
less than three times. He was an excellent 
judge of racing, backed his horses freely, 
and was the best bettor of his day, as may 
be inferred from the following page of 
Holcroft's Memoirs : 

' In addition to matches, plates, and 
other modes of adventure, that of a sweep- 
stakes had come into vogue ; and the 
opportunity it gave to deep calculators to 
secure themselves from loss by hedging 
their bets, greatly multiplied the bettors, 
and gave uncommon animation to the 
sweepstakes mode. In one of these Cap- 
tain Vernon had entered a colt, and as the 
prize to be obtained was great, the whole 
stable was on the alert. It was prophesied 
that the race would be a severe one; for, 
although the horses had none of them run 
before, they were all of the highest breed ; 
that is, their sires and dams were in the 
first lists of fame. As was foreseen, the 
contest was indeed a severe one, for it 
could not be decided // was a dead heat \ 
but our colt was by no means among the 


first. Yet so adroit was Captain Vernon in 
hedging his bets, that if one of the two 
colts that made it a dead heat had beaten, 
our master would, on that occasion, have 
won ten thousand pounds: as it was, he lost 
nothing, nor would in any case have lost any- 
thing. In the language of the turf, he stood 
ten thousand pounds to nothing! A fact so 
extraordinary to ignorance, and so splendid 
to poverty/ continues Holcroft, ' could not 
pass through a mind like mine without 
making a strong impression, which the tales 
told by the boys of the sudden rise of 
gamblers, their empty pockets at night, and 
their hats full of guineas in the morning, 
only tended to increase.' 

And in truth it was not without effect; 
for poor Holcroft began betting next morn- 
ing, and before the week ended half of his 
year's wages were gone ! Another staunch 
hero of the turf was the late Earl of Cler- 
mont, the breeder of Trumpator, from 
whom were descended all the ators of after 
days, viz., Paynator, Venator, Spoliator, 
Drumator, Ploughator, Amator, Pacificator, 
etc. ; besides which he was the sire of 
Sorcerer, Penelope, Tuneful, Chippenham, 


Orangeflower, his late majesty's famous 
gelding Rebel, and several other first-rates. 
Lord Clermont also was a great contributor 
to the turf by bringing with him from 
Ireland the famous jockey, Dennis Fitz- 
patrick, son of one of his tenants. We 
have his lordship, indeed, before us this 
moment, on his pony on the heath, and his 
string of long-tailed race-horses, reminding 
us of very early days. 

The late Sir Charles Bunbury's ardour for 
the turf was conspicuous to his last hour. 
He was the only man that ever won the 
Derby and Oaks with the same horse, 1 
and he was the breeder of many of the 
first racers of his time Smolensko among 
them. When this very celebrated horse 
started for the Derby which he won his 
owner led him in his hand, after he was 
saddled, and delivered him up to his jockey 
(Goodison), with the following pithy remark : 
c Here is your horse, Tom ; he will do his 
duty, if you will do yours \ ' Sir Charles 
was likewise very instrumental in doing away 
with the four- mile races at Newmarket, 
and substituting shorter ones in their stead. 

1 The celebrated Eleanor, in 1801. 


Some imputed this to the worthy baronet's 
humanity, whilst others, more correctly we 
believe, were of opinion that short races 
better suited his favourite blood. The 
Whiskeys and Sorcerers, for example, have 
been more celebrated for speed than for 
stoutness, although, where the produce from 
them has been crossed with some of our 
stout blood (for instance, Truffle and Bour- 
bon), they have been found to run on. On 
the whole, Sir Charles, latterly, with the 
exception of Muley, had got into a soft sort. 
He was also a bad keeper of his young 
stock, and would not be beaten out of his 
old prejudices in favour of grass and large 
paddocks. Had some persons we could 
name been possessed of his stud imperfect, 
perhaps, as it might have been as far as the 
real object of breeding horses is at stake 
they would have won everything before 
them at the present distances and weights. 
His much-talked-of, and justly celebrated, 
Smolensko died rather early in life, and his 
stock, with a few exceptions, did not realise 
the hopes and expectation of the sporting 

The name and exploits of the late Duke 


of Queensberry ( ( Old Q.') will never be for- 
gotten by the sporting world ; for whether 
we consider his judgment, his ingenuity, 
his invention, or his success, he was one of 
the most distinguished characters on the 
English turf. His horse Dash, by Florizel, 
bred by Mr. Vernon, beat Sir Peter Teazle 
over the six-mile course at Newmarket for 
one thousand guineas, having refused five 
hundred forfeit; 1 also his late majesty's 
Don Quixote, the same distance and for the 
same sum; and, during the year 1789, he 
won two other one thousand-guinea matches, 
the last against Lord Barrymore's High- 
lander, eight stone seven pounds each, 
three times round the round course j or very 
nearly twelve miles ! His carriage match, 
nineteen miles in one hour, with the same 
horses, and those four of the highest bred 
ones of the day, was undoubtedly a great 
undertaking, nor do we believe it has ever 
been exceeded. His singular bet of con- 
veying a letter fifty miles within an hour, 
was a trait of genius in its line. The MS. 
being enclosed in a cricket ball, and handed 

1 Dash carried six stone seven pounds. Sir Peter nine 


from one to the other of twenty-four expert 
cricketers, was delivered safe within the 
time. The duke's stud was not so numerous 
as some of those of his contemporaries on 
the turf, but he prided himself on the 
excellence of it. His principal rider was 
the famous Dick Goodison, father of the 
present jockey, in whose judgment he had 
much reliance. But, in the language of the 
turf, his grace was 'wide awake,' and at 
times would rely on no one. Having, on 
one occasion, reason to know the jockey, 
indeed, had honestly informed him of it 
that a large sum of money was offered his 
man if he would lose * Take it,' said the 
duke; 'I will bear you harmless.' When 
the horse came to the post, his grace coolly 
observed, 'This is a nice horse to ride; I 
think I '11 ride him myself ; when, throwing 
open his greatcoat, he was found to be in 
racing attire, and, mounting, won without 
a struggle. 

The name of Wilson commands great 
respect on the turf, there being no less 
than three equally conspicuous and equally 
honourable sportsmen thus yclept. Mr, 
Christopher Wilson, now the father of the 


turf, and perpetual steward of Newmarket, 
resides at Beilby Grange near Wetherby, in 
Yorkshire, where he has a small but very 
fashionably bred stud, and was the owner 
of Chateau Margaux, now in America, and 
Comus. He is the only man who claims 
the honour of winning the Derby and 
St. Leger stakes the same year, with the 
same horse, which he did with Champion, 
by Pot-8-o's, ridden in each race by Francis 
Buckle. 1 The turf is highly indebted to 
this gentleman, not only for his paternal 
care of its general interests and welfare, 
but for having, by his amiable and con- 
ciliatory manners and conduct, united the 
sportsmen of the north and south, and 
divested their matches and engagements of 
some disagreeable features which had pre- 
viously been too prominent. Mr. Richard 
Wilson, now no more, resided at Bildeston, 
in Suffolk, and was one of the largest 
breeders of racing stock, of which he had 
an annual sale ; and Lord Berners, late 
Colonel Wilson of Didlington, near Brandon, 
Suffolk, has likewise some capital mares, 

1 It is remarkable that both Champion and Hamble- 
tonian had a hip down. 


and bred Sir Mark Wood's Camarine, the 
best mare of her day. His lordship was 
the owner of her sire, Juniper, now dead, 
and at present has the stud-horse Lamp- 

The star of the race-course of modern 
times was the late Colonel Mellish, certainly 
the cleverest man of his day, as regards the 
science and practice of the turf. No one 
could match (i.e. make matches) with him, 
nor could any one excel him in handi- 
capping horses in a race. But, indeed, 
6 nihil erat quod non tetigit ; nihil quod 
tetigit non ornavit? He beat Lord Frederick 
Bentinck in a foot race over Newmarket 
heath. He was a clever painter, a fine 
horseman, a brave soldier, a scientific 
farmer, and an exquisite coachman. But, 
as his friends said of him, not content with 
being the second-best man of his day, he 
would be the first, which was fatal to his 
fortune and his fame. It, however, de- 
lighted us to see him in public, in the 
meridian of his almost unequalled popu- 
larity, and the impression he made upon 
us remains. We remember even the style 
of his dress, peculiar for its lightness of 


hue his neat white hat, white trousers, 
white silk stockings, ay, and we may add, 
his white, but handsome, face. There was 
nothing black about him but his hair and 
his mustachios, which he wore by virtue 
of his commission, and which to him were 
an ornament. The like of his style of 
coming on the race-course at Newmarket 
was never witnessed there before him, nor 
since. He drove his barouche himself, 
drawn by four beautiful white horses, with 
two outriders on matches to them, ridden 
in harness bridles. In his rear was a 
saddle-horse groom, leading a thorough- 
bred hack, and at the rubbing-post on the 
heath was another groom all in crimson 
liveries waiting with a second hack. But 
we marvel when we think of his establish- 
ment. We remember him with thirty-eight 
race-horses in training; seventeen coach- 
horses, twelve hunters in Leicestershire, 
four chargers at Brighton, and not a few 
hacks ! But the worst is yet to come. By 
his racing speculations he was a gainer, 
his judgment pulling him through ; but 
when we had heard that he would play to 
the extent of forty thousand pounds at a 


sitting yes, he once staked that sum on a 
throw we were not surprised that the 
domain of Blythe passed into other hands ; 
and that the once accomplished owner of 
it became the tenant of a premature grave. 
1 The bowl of pleasure/ said Johnson, 'is 
poisoned by reflection on the cost'; and 
here it was drunk to the dregs. Colonel 
Hellish ended his days, not in poverty, for 
he acquired a competency with his lady, 
but in a small house within sight of the 
mansion that had been the pride of his 
ancestors and himself. As, however, the 
wind is tempered to the shorn lamb, Colonel 
Hellish was not without consolation; he 
never wronged any one but himself, and, as 
an owner of race-horses and a bettor, his 
character was without spot. 

Among other leading sportsmen of the 
turf, now no more, were the late Duke of 
Grafton, and Douglass, Duke of Hamilton. 
The Duke of Grafton was a keen sports- 
man, and an excellent judge of racing ; and 
his horses having been well and honestly 
ridden by South, he was among the few 
great winners amongst great men. It is 
somewhat singular that the success of the 


Grafton stud may be traced to one mare, 
and therefore the history of her is worth 
relating. In 1756, Julia, by Blank, was 
bred by Mr. Panton, of great Newmarket 
fame (her pedigree running back not only 
to Bay Bolton, Barley's Arabian, and the 
Byerly Turk, but beyond the Lord Pro- 
tector's White Turk, generally the ne plus 
ultra of pedigrees, to the Taffolet Barb, 
and the Natural Barb mare), and at seven 
years old was put into the Duke's stud, 
and produced Promise, by Snap, Promise 
produced Prunella, by Highflyer, the dam 
of eleven first-rate horses, whose names 
(after the manner of fox-hounds) all begin 
with the letter P, the first letter of the 
mare's name, and she is said to have 
realised to the Grafton family little short 
of one hundred thousand pounds. In fact, 
all breeders of race-horses try for a strain 
of the justly celebrated Prunella. The all- 
graceful Hamilton (often called 'Zeluco') 
was equally conspicuous in the North, and 
celebrated for stout blood. He won the 
St. Leger no less than seven times, a 
circumstance quite unparalleled on the turf: 
and ran first for it the eighth, but the 


stakes were given to Lord Fitzwilliam, his 
grace's rider having jostled. 

Coming nearer to our own times, Sir 
Harry Vane Tempest and Mr. Robert 
Heathcote made great appearances with 
their studs, as well as the heavy engage- 
ments they entered into; and such horses 
as Schedoni, the property of the latter, and 
Hambletonian, Rolla, and Cockfighter, of 
the former, are very seldom produced. 
Vivaldi, by Woodpecker, also the property 
of Mr. Heathcote, was the sire of more 
good hunters than almost any other in 
England, and the very mention of their 
being 'by Vivaldi/ sold them. Hamble- 
tonian was one of the meteors of the day. 
Sir Frank Standish, and his Yellow mare 
the breeder of Stamford, Eagle, Didelot, 
Parisot, and Archduke, all Derby and Oaks 
winners, except Stamford, one of the best 
of our stud-horses must not be passed 
unnoticed, not only as a sportsman, but 
as the true stamp of an English country 
gentleman. Sir Ferdinand Poole also cut 
a great figure on the turf with his Waxy, 
Worthy, Wowski, etc. ; and could some of 
our present breeders of race-horses have 


now before their eyes Maria, by Herod, 
out of Lisette by Snap, and Macaria, by 
Herod, out of Titania by Shakespeare, the 
one the dam of Waxy, and the other of 
Mealy, we have reason to believe that they 
would turn away from many of their own 
mares in disgust. His contemporary, Mr. 
Howorth, was likewise strong in horses, 
and an excellent judge of making a book 
on a race. But Mr. Bullock, generally 
known as 'Tom Bullock/ was, we believe, 
more awake than any of them, and was 
often heard to declare, that he should wish 
for nothing more in this world than to be 
taken for a fool at Newmarket. 

We find the Prince of Wales (George iv.), 
in 1788, when only in his twenty-sixth 
year, a winner of the Derby. In 1789 he 
accompanied the Duke of York to York 
races, where he purchased his famous horse, 
Traveller, by Highflyer, which ran the 
grand match against the late Duke of 
Bedford's Grey Diomed, on which it is 
supposed there was more money depending 
than was ever before known, or has ever 
been heard of since. But it was in the 
years 1790 and 1791 that his late majesty's 


stud was so conspicuous the days of 
Baronet and Escape ; the former notorious 
for winning the Ascot Oatlands, beating 
eighteen picked horses of England, with 
twenty to one against him; and the latter 
for his various races against Grey Diomed, 
which caused his royal owner's retirement 
from Newmarket. This is now an old 
story; and though we should be among 
the first to say 

' Curse on the coward or perfidious tongue 
That dares not e'en to kings avow the truth,' 

yet we think the Jockey Club dealt rather 
hardly by the young prince, and he was 
quite right in refusing their invitation to 
return. We wish for proof before we con- 
demn; and we think proof was wanting 
here. Where were the orders to the jockey 
to lose, and where was the money won by 
losing? We can hear of neither. But if 
the change to a certain extent in a horse's 
running (accounted for by the late Samuel 
Chifney, 1 by the treatment of Escape) is of 
itself enough to damage the character of 

1 In his book Genius Genuine, published in 1804 ; 
' Sold for the Author, 232 Piccadilly and nowhere else,' 
as saith the title-page. Price 5/. ! 


his owner, what would have become of that 
of his royal highness's principal accuser, the 
late Sir Charles Bunbury? Look at the 
running of his Eleanor : it is well known 
she was the winner of both Derby and 
Oaks the best mare of her day. Well ! at 
Huntingdon she was beaten by a common 
plater, a mare called Two Shoes, ten to one 
on Eleanor. The next week at Egham, she 
beat a first-rate race-horse, Bobadil, and 
several others, ten to one on Bobadil. In 
both these cases money was lost, and the 
question that follows is, who won it ? But 
Sir Charles too is in his grave, and there- 
fore we say ' requiescat in pace} 

After quitting Newmarket, his late majesty 
was a great supporter of country races, 
sending such horses as Knowsley, by Sir 
Peter, and others nearly as good, to run 
heats for plates ; and he particularly patron- 
ised the meetings of Brighton and Lewes, 
which acquired high repute. But Bibury 
was his favourite race-ground ; where, 
divesting himself of the shackles of state, 
he appeared as a private gentleman for 
several years in succession, an inmate of 
Lord Sherborne's family, and with the 

THE TURF 10 1 

Duke of Dorset, then Lord Sackville, for 
his jockey. During the last ten years of 
his majesty's life, racing appeared to interest 
him more than it had ever done before; 
and by the encouragement he then gave 
to Ascot and Goodwood, he contributed 
towards making them the most fashionable, 
and by far the most agreeable meetings 
we believe we may say in the world. 
Perhaps the day on which his three favour- 
ite horses, Fleur-de-lis, Zinganee, and the 
Colonel, came in first, second, and third, 
for the cup at the latter place, was one of 
the proudest of his life. 

The stud of George iv., however, was 
not altogether so successful as it ought to 
have been from the great expense bestowed 
upon it, and the large prices given for race- 
horses bred by other sportsmen. Among 
those of his own breeding perhaps Whiskey, 
Manfred, and his favourite mare Maria were 
the best. The latter was a great winner 
yet made but small amends for persevering 
in breeding from her sire. The Colonel 
and Fleur-de-lis were also great winners 
the latter decidedly the best mare of her 
year, either in the north or in the south, 


and her symmetry not to be excelled. The 
two last were purchased at very high prices, 
and now form part of the royal stud, as 
also does Maria. The history of this mare 
is worth notice. When, from prudential 
motives, the royal stud at Hampton Court 
was broken up, Waterloo and Belvoirina, 
still in the stud, were the only two kept, 
and their produce was the said Maria. 
Miss Wasp, the dam of Vespa, a winner of 
the Oaks, was likewise bred by George iv. 

In his majesty's long career on the turf, 
he of course had several trainers and as 
many jockeys. Among the latter were the 
late celebrated Samuel Chifney, and South, 
who rode his horses at Newmarket, and, 
afterwards, Richard Goodison and Robin- 
son. Latterly, however, he imported one 
from the north, the well-known George 
Nelson, who gave him unbounded satis- 
faction. His trainers were Neale and 
Casborne in former days ; but latterly 
William Edwards, of Newmarket, who 
enjoys a pension for life, and the use of 
the royal stables. The last time George iv. 
was at Ascot was in 1829, but he lived to 
hear of the next year's meeting. He was 


on the bed of death ; and so strong was 
the { ruling passion ' in this awful hour 
and his majesty was well aware his hour 
was come that an express was sent to him 
after every race. 

The late Duke of York was equally de- 
voted to the turf: and, in 1816, we find 
his royal highness a winner of the Derby, 
with Prince Leopold, and, in 1822, with 
Moses ; the former bred by Lord Durham, 
the latter by himself. His racing career 
may be said to have commenced at Ascot, 
where he established the Oatland stakes, 
which at one period were more than equal in 
value to the Derby, being a hundred-guinea 
subscription. Indeed, we have reason to 
believe, that when they were won by his 
late majesty's Baronet beating eighteen of 
the picked horses in England, his own 
Escape amongst the lot there was more 
money depending than had ever been 
before, excepting on two occasions. His 
majesty won seventeen thousand pounds by 
the race, and would have won still more 
had Escape been the winner. We wish we 
could add to this trifling sketch a long list of 
his royal highness's winnings ; but the Duke 

io 4 THE TURF 

of York was on the turf what the Duke 
of York was everywhere good-humoured, 
unsuspecting, and confiding; qualifications, 
however creditable to human nature, ill 
fitted for a race-course. It is therefore 
scarcely necessary to say, that his royal 
highness was no winner by his horses, nor 
indeed by anything else ; and we much fear 
that his heavy speculations on the turf were 
among the chief causes of those pecuniary 
embarrassments which disturbed the latter 
years of one against whose high and chival- 
rous feelings of honour and integrity no 
human creature that knew anything of him 
ever breathed a whisper. In 1825, we find 
the duke with sixteen horses to his name, 
and with the exception of two, a most sorry 
lot-, but, previously to that period, he had 
incurred severe loss by persevering in breed- 
ing from Aladdin and Giles. The stud 
usually ran in Mr. Greville's name ; were 
trained by Butler, of Newmarket, now de- 
ceased; and chiefly ridden by Goodison, 
who did the best he could for them. 

The late Earl of Fitzwilliam was dis- 
tinguished by the princely way in which 
he conducted his stud, and the magnificence 


of his retinue on the race-course. His 
lordship was likewise the breeder of some 
eminent racers, amongst which were the 
justly famous Orville an incalculable 
treasure to the British turf and Mulatto, 
who beat Memnon, Fleur-de-lis, Bedlamite, 
Tarrare, winner of the St. Leger in 1826, 
Non-plus, Fanny Davis, Starch, Longwaist 
in fact, all the best horses in the north, 
and ran second to Tarrare for the St. Leger. 
Earl Fitzwilliam never sent his horses south, 
but was a great supporter of York and 
Doncaster, and won the Fitzwilliam stakes 
at the latter place in 1826 with the horse 
we have just been speaking of. He was 
got by Cattan, also bred by his lordship, 
out of Desdemona by Orville all his own 
blood grandam Fanny by Highflyer. The 
stud is now broken up. 

The late venerable Earl of Derby was all 
his life a warm supporter of racing. Next, 
perhaps, to Eclipse and Herod, no horse 
that has ever appeared has been equal to 
Sir Peter Teazle as a stud horse, we 
believe he produced more winners than any 
other on record. In him were united the 
best blood which this country can boast 


of, King Herod, Blank, Snap, Regulus, 
and the Godolphin Arabian. As, however, 
the sun is not without its spots, Sir Peter 
was not without a blemish. His own legs 
gave way at four years old, and those of 
his produce were not, on an average, good ; 
notwithstanding which, as we before stated, 
their winnings are without a parallel, barring 
those from the stock of the unparalleled 
Eclipse. The following anecdote is, we 
believe, authentic. Doctor Brandreth, the 
family physician at Knowsley, was com- 
missioned by the then American consul to 
offer Lord Derby seven thousand guineas 
for Sir Peter Teazle, which his lordship 
refused, having, as he said, already refused 
ten : he certainly would have been a loser, 
had he accepted the offer. The present 
earl cared little for racing ; but Lord Stanley 
is likely to do credit to the blood of Sir 
Peter, as well as to the name he bears. 

The present Duke of Dorset, when Lord 
Sackville, not only showed himself an 
admirable judge of a race-horse, but few 
jockeys by profession could ride one better ; 
and, indeed, at one period of his life, few 
of them were in much greater practice. 


His grace was always cautious in his en- 
gagements, but from his perfect knowledge 
of his horses, generally placed them winners. 
In the days of Expectation, Lucan, and 
others, he won all before him ; but mark 
the change of the times ! Looking into the 
Calendar for 1800, we find Expectation by 
Sir Peter, out of Zilia by Eclipse, running 
four miles at Lewes, and beating two very 
stout mares : for what ! Why, for the sum 
of sixty guineas, which could not pay the 
expenses ! But then another of his horses, 
and a good one too (Laborie by Delpini), 
wins a fifty-pound plate the same year at 
Winchester ; the best of three four-mile heats \ 
Were the Duke of Dorset on the turf now, 
he would have something better to do with 
such horses as Expectation and Laborie ! 

The present Duke of Grafton has been 
a great winner, having inherited, with his 
domains, the virtues of old Prunella, but 
owes some of his success to his late brother, 
Lord Henry Fitzroy, whose judgment in 
racing was equal to any man's. With the 
assistance then of Lord Henry, the training 
of Robson, and the good riding of the late 
Frank Buckle, John Day, William Clift, 


and others, his grace has done very well, 
although, since the retirement of Robson, 
the honours of the turf have not poured in 
so thickly upon him. The duke, however, 
has no reason to complain, having won the 
Derby stakes four times, and the Oaks 
eight; and, as Buckle said of himself, '-most 
of the good things at Newmarket,' for a few 
years in succession. Indeed, unless we 
have made a mistake in our figures, his 
grace pocketed the comfortable sum of 
thirteen thousand pounds in the year 1825, 
from public stakes alone ! But we must do 
the Duke of Grafton the justice to say, that 
in his stable he has marched with the times, 
his horses having been always forward in 
their work, the grand desideratum in a 
training-stable. His grace also deserves 
success, for he is a nobleman of high 
character on the turf, and, unlike too many 
owners of race-horses whom we could name, 
always runs to win. The Duke of Grafton's 
stable is, in consequence, heavily backed, 
when it brings out good horses for any of 
the great stakes ; and we are happy to add 
it is at present in good force, having eight 
or nine two-year olds in training at New- 


market, instead of selling them, as has been 
the case the last four or five years. 

The Duke of Portland has been a steady 
and ever honourable patron of the English 
turf; but his stud is now small. In fact, 
since winning the Derby with Tiresias, in 
1819, the tide of fortune appears to have 
turned against his stable, and he has not 
done much. His grace has, however, lately 
shown himself a zealous advocate for pre- 
serving the strength, stoutness, and vigour 
of the English race-horse, which it is feared 
has been on the decline, by the munificent 
donation of three hundred pounds to a one 
hundred guineas handicap-stakes, at New- 
market, now called the ' Portland Handi- 
cap ' ; distance, the last three miles of the 
Beacon course. His Grace of Rutland has 
become slack, nor, indeed, has his stable 
brought out more than five horses the last 
two years. He won the Derby with Cad- 
land (whom he bred), after a dead heat 
with the Colonel a circumstance previously 
unknown for that great race and the Oaks 
with Sorcery and Medora. On the other 
hand, the Duke of Cleveland's passion for 
the turf appears to grow with his years, <y his 


grace having been the best buyer of the 
present century. He gave three thousand 
five hundred guineas for Trustee and 
Liverpool, and but a few years back, no 
less than twelve thousand pounds for four 
horses, namely, Swiss, Serab, Barefoot, and 
Memnon, the two last winners of the St. 
Leger for Mr. Watt. The Duke of Cleve- 
land never won the St. Leger till 1831, with 
Chorister, nor was he ever winner of either 
of the great Epsom stakes ; but in the days 
of Agonistes and Haphazard his stable was 
the terror of the north, and his grace was a 
great winner of cups, though he afterwards 
flew at higher game. His match with 
Pavilion, against Colonel Mellish's Sancho, 
at Newmarket, in 1806, was one of the 
greatest races of modern days, as to the 
extent of betting ; and immense sums were 
lost on Agonistes, when he was beat by 
Champion, for the St. Leger, in 1800. His 
grace has had good horses in his stable 
of late years ; among them Trustee, and 
Emancipation by Whisker, who had the 
honour of receiving forfeit from Priam, 
receiving nine pounds : likewise Muley 
Moloch, the winner of the York Derby 


stakes at the Spring Meeting, 1832; and 
Liverpool, of the gold cup. The duke is 
one of the heaviest bettors on the turf; and 
few men know more of racing, or indeed of 
anything relating to the sports of the turf or 
field. 1 The Duke of Richmond has been 
one of the most zealous supporters of the 
turf, having expended a very large sum on 
the racecourse at Goodwood, now the first 
country meeting in England, after Epsom, 
Ascot, and Doncaster. His grace has been 
a considerable winner, but his stud is 
greatly diminished. He won the Oaks, 
with Gulnare, in 1827, and has had quite 
his share of success, being remarkable for 
very seldom bringing out a bad racer. 

The Lord of Exeter stands first of the 
Marquises on the turf. His lordship has 
been a great winner, having carried the 
Oaks with Augusta, Green Mantle, and 
Galata, and many of the good things at 
Newmarket and elsewhere ; but, somewhat 
extraordinary, he has never been a winner 
of the Derby. He breeds much from the 
famous stud-horse, Sultan, his own property, 

1 His grace has a capital two-year-old this year in his 
stable by Voltaire out of Matilda. 


whose price, to others, is fifty guineas each 
mare. The Marquis of Westminster, 
although very well bred for it, never sig- 
nalised himself on the turf, and has there- 
fore wisely withdrawn from Newmarket, 
confining his stud, a very small one, to the 
provincial meetings in his own immediate 
neighbourhood, where it is quite right for 
great lords to make the agreeable. We 
believe that the last time he was at head- 
quarters was to see his horse Navarino win 
the great two thousand-guinea stakes ! His 
lordship, however, has shone forth, a bright 
star at the eleventh hour, with his famous 
horse Touchstone, having challenged all 
England with him after winning the Don- 
caster St. Leger. The Marquis of Conyng- 
ham is a sportsman, and was used to back 
his horses freely, as did the Marquis of 
Sligo, one of the best breeders of them ; 
but as his lordship belongs to the sister 
kingdom, for the honour of old England, 
we presume, he was not often allowed to 
win. He, however, has had the distinction 
of being second for the St. Leger twice; 
namely, with Canteen when Jerry won it, 
and with Bran in Touchstone's year. 


Neither can much be said of the prowess 
of the most noble Marquises of Tavistock 
and Worcester (now Duke of Beaufort), 
who, though good and honourable men, 
will never increase their patrimony by 
racing. In short, since the Duke of Cleve- 
land has quitted their ranks, our sporting 
marquises, with the exception of Lord 
Exeter, do not shine on the racecourse. 

But we cannot say this of the noble earls, 
amongst whom are some of the best judges 
of racing of past or present days. We will 
begin with the Earl of Egremont ; and not 
only by the rule of seniores priores^ but 
looking upon him as one of the main con- 
tributors to the legitimate end of racing 
the improvement of the breed of horses his 
lordship having always paid regard to what 
is termed stout, or honest, blood. Lord 
Egremont bred Gohanna, by Mercury, by 
Eclipse, and purchased Whalebone from the 
Duke of Grafton (the old Prunella sort), 
whose stock have been invaluable to the 
turf, and will continue to be so for many 
years to come, although objections are 
made to their size made amends for, in 
great measure, by their symmetry. His 

ii 4 THE TURF 

lordship has HI ewise turned the amusement 
and such has been his main object in the 
pursuit of it to an excellent account, in 
the liberal act of affording to his tenantry 
and neighbours the free benefit of several 
of his stud-horses. Among these have 
been two very fine animals, Octavius and 
Wanderer, the latter not inaptly named, as 
for many years of his life he was never 
known to lie down, but was generally in 
action in his box. He was a noble speci- 
men of the horse, and one of the best bred 
ones in the world for all the purposes for 
which horses of speed and strength are 
wanted, being by Gohanna, out of a sister 
to Colibri, by Woodpecker, esteemed our 
stoutest blood. The earl is likewise the 
breeder of honest Chateau Margaux and 
Camel, ornaments to the British turf, and 
sons of good little Whalebone. Lord Egre- 
mont won the Derby three times in four 
years; twice with sons of Gohanna, and 
subsequently with Lapdog by Whalebone. 
He has also been three times the winner 
of the Oaks with fillies from his own 
stud. But all this success is not to be 
placed to his lordship's own account ; 


he received great assistance in all his 
racing speculations from his late brother, 
the Honourable Charles Wyndham, since 
whose decease the stable has not been so 

The late Earl of Burlington (Lord George 
Cavendish) was of great repute on New- 
market heath as a good breeder of race- 
horses, a very high bettor, and we need not 
add, a most honourable man. His lordship, 
no doubt, had his fancies in his betting, 
which of course he now and then paid for. 
When he did ' fancy his horse,' as the turf- 
phrase is, he would risk an immense sum 
upon him, not far short, we have heard, 
of ten thousand pounds ! 

The late Earl of Stradbroke was one of the 
keenest and best sportsmen at Newmarket, 
and owner of a large stud. Amongst the 
number, was the celebrated mare Persepolis, 
the dam of thirteen good racers ; amongst 
which were Araxes, Tigris, Indus, Euphrates, 
Phasis, and Cydnus, all sons of Quiz, and 
Granicus and Rubicon by Sorcerer. The 
famous brood mares, Cobbaea (the dam of 
Sorcery) and Grey Duchess, by Pot-8-q's, 
were also in his lordship's stud, and pre- 


sented by him to George iv. when he com- 
menced breeding race-horses at Hampton 
Court. The present Lord Stradbroke and 
his Grace of Richmond were confederates 
on the turf. 

The Earl of Oxford took the field a few 
years back as usual, with a tolerably large 
string of horses ; and, to use his own words, 
when he won the Great Produce stakes at 
Ascot, with his Muley filly, and the Clear- 
well stakes with his Clearwell colt (a clear 
thousand by the way, and the other five 
hundred), ' got out of his place/ which had 
generally been a good second. He ran 
second, indeed, with Ascot, for a Derby ; 
and good judges say his horse ought to 
have won. His lordship, however, takes 
all this with perfect good humour, and is 
himself always a favourite at Newmarket, 
should his horse not prove to be so. The 
noble earl is considered a very liberal 
match-maker ; but he has lately been run- 
ning so forward as to be considered able 
to take care of himself. Of the Earls 
Verulam, Warwick, and Clarendon, we now 
hear but little, although the first-named 
lord is rather an extensive breeder. Lord 


Clarendon we consider little more than an 
amateur. Earl Sefton began his racing 
career late in life, and although he entered 
into it with spirit, giving two thousand 
guineas for Bobadilla, soon abandoned the 
slippery course. Indeed, so hastily did he 
retire from it, that, on a little disappoint- 
ment at Epsom, he would not wait for the 
assistance of the printer, but sent a manu- 
script notice to Tattersall's yard that his 
stud was immediately to be sold. We 
confess we admire his lordship's decision 
* When fortune frowns, the first loss is the 
best.' The Earl of Lichfield is rather deep 
on the turf, as the list of his horses shows. 
Indeed his lordship does everything with 
spirit, but even spirit cannot command 
success. Lord Lichfield, however, is a 
sportsman, and what is termed a high and 
honourable bettor. The Earl of Wilton, 
as well bred for the turf as Eclipse, being 
grandson to the Earl Grosvenor, is not only 
an owner of race-horses, but also a jockey 
one of the best gentlemen race-riders of 
these days. The Earl of Chesterfield is 
conspicuous, as a peep into the Racing 
Calendar will confirm, no less than twenty- 


five horses now appearing to his name, 
besides three sent to Germany. His lord- 
ship had also, at his stud-farm, in Derby- 
shire, the renowned horses Priam l and 
Zinganee, the former having finished his 
brilliant career with winning the Goodwood 
cup. Report says, that he is likely to make 
his way in this ' forest of adventure,' as 
his experience increases with his years. 
But the best judge of this rank is the noble 
Earl of Jersey, who, indeed, does every- 
thing well. As a breeder, perhaps his 
lordship may not equal the Duke of Grafton 
and Lord Egremont, certainly not in extent; 
but we must place him third, having pro- 
duced from his own mares one winner of 
the Oaks Cobweb, supposed to be the 
best bred mare in England and three 
winners of the Derby ; namely, Middleton, 
Bay Middleton (by Middleton out of 
Cobweb), and Mameluke ; the latter of 
which he sold to Mr. Gully for four thou- 
sand guineas ! Perhaps no man ever 
brought to the post on one day two finer 

1 Priam has been purchased of his lordship for 
America, at the hitherto unheard-of price for a stud- 
horse, of three thousand five hundred guineas ! 


horses than Mameluke, the winner of the 
Derby, and Glenartney, who ran second to 
him, beating twenty-one others with the 
greatest ease. Mameluke was bred by Mr. 
Elwes. Lord Jersey's stud is not large, 
but well selected, and he has every con- 
venience for breeding at his seat, Middle- 
ton Stony, Oxfordshire. His lordship was 
formerly confederate with that thorough 
sportsman, Sir John Shelley, who had the 
honour of breeding Phantom and Priam. 
The Earl of Durham has retired, but, when 
Mr. Lambton, he had a splendid stud, 
which was sold by Messrs. Tattersall, in 
1826, eight foals realising the astonishing 
sum of fifteen hundred and thirty-three 
guineas (above two hundred pounds each) ! 
Of Newmarket viscounts we muster more; 
but looking to the past, we must give Lord 
Lowther the pas^ not only from his experi- 
ence and knowledge, considered quite first- 
rate, but from the single fact of his having 
had sixteen horses in training, only a few 
years back, at one time. It is a singular 
fact, that his lordship has only won the 
Derby once with Spaniel and never won 
the Oaks, in his long career on the turf. 


He had formerly a large breeding establish- 
ment at Oxcroft, eight miles from New- 
market ; but the land not being suited for 
it, in addition to the great prevalence of 
flies, it was removed to within a few hundred 
yards of Newmarket town, where his lord- 
ship occupies a farm. Here stood the 
horse Partisan, the sire of many good ones, 
and amongst the rest, Glaucus, purchased 
by Mr. Ridsdale of General Grosvenor at 
three thousand guineas, after beating Clear- 
well (Lord Orford's) in a match for five 
hundred guineas, at Newmarket, and now 
the property of Lord Chesterfield. The 
best judges are sometimes mistaken ; and 
Lord Lowther should not have sold Glaucus 
to the general for three hundred and fifty 
guineas without having had a taste of 
him ; for besides his winnings, amounting 
to fourteen hundred guineas, he cleared 
nearly three thousand by the purchase. 
But the ' Glauci permutatio ' is a standing 
proverb for a bad bargain, ever since the 
hero he is named after exchanged gold for 
iron under the walls of old Troy. Joseph 
Rogers, of Newmarket, trained for his lord- 
ship. Lord Ranelagh was a short time on 


the heath, but, preferring a more glorious 
field, is now fighting for Don Carlos; and 
we must consider our noble secretary for 
foreign affairs, Viscount Palmerston, only 
an humble provincial. To the satisfaction, 
indeed, of his competitors, his lordship has 
now relinquished even these rural honours, 
for Luzborough, Grey-leg, and company, 
were sad teazers to the west-country platers. 

Our noble barons make no figure in the 
Newmarket list. Strange to say, we cannot 
find one. Lord Wharncliffe was the last ; 
and still more strange to tell of so unwaver- 
ing a Tory, his lordship's best horse at one 
time was Reformer ! 

Of honourables, owners of race-horses, 
we can find but one, Colonel Anson, a 
good sportsman and very spirited bettor. 
Neither can we produce more than two 
Newmarket baronets, and are inclined to 
ask, how is this? Sir Mark Wood stands 
first, with a long string of horses. 

Some apprehensions were entertained for 
Sir Mark when he entered the ring, with youth 
on his brow, and Gatton just in time, by 
the bye in his pocket; and it was feared 
all might find its way into schedule-, A. 


But Sir Mark has made a good fight 
he has given good prices for good horses, 
which, with good training and good riding, 
have pulled him through ; although since 
the days of Lucetta, Camarine, and Vespa 
(winner of the Oaks), he has not shone so 
brightly. His last week of the last meeting 
at Newmarket, 1832, was a very pretty 
finish. He won six times and received 
forfeit once ; and on one match, Camarine 
versus Crutch, he is said to have netted 
three thousand pounds ! His beating Row- 
ton also for the Ascot Cup, with the same 
mare the same year (Robinson riding against 
Chifney), after running one dead heat, was 
one of the grandest events of the season. 
Lucetta with eight stone nine pounds met 
the Duke of Grafton's Oxygen (a winner of 
the Oaks) with seven stone two pounds, 
one six years old, and the other four, for 
the Jockey Club plate, at Newmarket, 
Beacon course. Lucetta won, and the 
speed was very little short of Childers, as 
they were but seven minutes in coming to 
the duke's stand. 

One of the oldest sportsmen at New- 
market is General Grosvenor but far from 


being the most fortunate. Indeed it is a trite 
saying, 'The general is honest, but unlucky/ 
and this is well said in these slippery times. 
He won the Oaks, in 1807, with Briseis, 
with heavy odds against her, consequently 
a round sum besides; and, again, in 1825, 
by Chifney's fine riding with Wings, with ten 
to one against her. He likewise won, with 
Blue Stockings, the Riddlesworth of 1819, 
perhaps the greatest stake ever won, being, 
including his own subscription, five thou- 
sand guineas ! Fortune has also smiled 
upon him again, for the last year was a 
winning one. He bought Glaucus for three 
hundred and fifty guineas, won fourteen 
hundred pounds with him, and sold him 
for three thousand ! thus reversing the 
proverb. A few years back his winnings 
were somewhat unaccountable, his horses 
having been in the hands, not of a regularly 
bred trainer, but of his north-country colt- 
breaker, who has been in his service twenty- 
eight years. They amounted to twenty-five 
times in nineteen months. 

After the father of the turf, we believe 
Mr. Batson is about the oldest of the Jockey 
Club. Although he was placed third with 


Hogarth, Middleton's year, and ran third 
for the Oaks, he never carried the Epsom 
honours until 1834, with Plenipotentiary. 
Mr. Rush also is an old jockey, and a very 
good supporter of the turf, running his 
horses more for amusement than profit. 
He also breeds, but his stock does not 
shine at Newmarket, where he is generally 
satisfied with a good third. It is said he 
breeds from worn-out mares. In the pro- 
vincials, however, he is rather more for- 
tunate ; and it is something to say he was 
James Robinson's first master, and John 
Robinson trains for him. Mr. Biggs is 
another old member of the Jockey Club, 
but, like Mr. Batson, is more formidable in 
the provincials, where he has been a great 
winner, and hard to beat. Some years 
since, at Stockbridge, his horse Camerton 
was the winner of a memorable race. Three 
others started, viz., Sir John Cope's Shoe- 
strings, the late Lord Foley's Offa's Dyke, 
and the late Lord Charles Somerset's Scor- 
pion. The following was the result : 
Camerton, ridden by the late Sawyer, who 
died shortly after, never started again ; 
Shoestrings, by John Day, broke down ; 


Offa's Dyke, by Goodison, went blind, but 
recovered his sight; and Scorpion, ridden 
by Joseph Rogers, now trainer at New- 
market, fell dead at the distance-post, from 
the rupture of a blood-vessel at the heart. 
The distance was four miles, and only one 
heat ! Mr. Thornhill is one of the best 
judges of racing at Newmarket, and has one 
of the largest studs at his seat at Riddles- 
worth, whence the great Riddlesworth stakes 
takes its name. He has won the Derby 
with Sam and Sailor, both sons of Scud, 
and the Oaks with Shoveler, also a daughter 
of Scud. Previously to Sam's race, this 
shrewd judge pronounced the Derby stakes 
in his pocket ! and he also picked out 
Gulnare as winner of the Oaks for the Duke 
of Richmond, without the possibility, as he 
expressed himself, of losing it, barring the 
accident of a fall. The strange coincidence 
of his winning the Derby with Sailor by 
Scud) during a violent gale of wind, will 
perhaps, never be forgotten at Epsom. Mr. 
Thornhill owns yEmilius, the celebated sire 
of Priam, Oxygen, etc., whose price is forty 
guineas. Colonel Udney's name stood high 
at Newmarket, but he has lately all but re- 


tired from the turf. He won the Derby with 
^Emilius, and the Oaks with Corinne, and 
has had quite his share of ' most of the good 
things at Newmarket/ as Buckle said, who 
was the colonel's principal jockey. He was 
once confederate with Mr. Payne, uncle to 
the gentleman of that name now on the turf. 
Mr. Lechmere Charlton was on the turf 
more than twenty years, having run third 
for the Oaks in 1811, and has been an 
owner of several good horses Master 
Henry, perhaps, the best. He has likewise 
been a great breeder of racers, and besides 
Henry (whom he purchased cheaply for 
seven hundred guineas), had Manfred, Sam, 
Hedley, Castrel, Banker, and Anticipation, 
as stud-horses, with several good mares 
from the Duke of Grafton and Lord Gros- 
venor, and, indeed, from other celebrated 
studs within his reach. Like all great 
breeders, Mr. Charlton has had many 
public sales, at one of which the sum of 
nineteen hundred pounds being offered for 
Henry, by a very badly dressed person in 
the crowd, he was asked by the auctioneer 
for whom he was bidding? "Here is my 
authority,' said the man, pointing to his 


breeches pocket. A few years ago, Mr. 
Charlton took rather a curious turn, ex- 
changing the cap and jacket of the race- 
course for the wig and gown of the courts, 
and was actually called to the bar. Like 
Dido's love, however, the passion for racing 
could not be smothered in the murky 
atmosphere of Westminster Hall, nearly as 
gloomy as the vault of Sichaeus; and we 
found him again with a good string of race- 
horses. There are not many better judges 
than Mr. Charlton, though we fear, like 
other gentlemen-sportsmen, he has paid 
rather dearly for his experience ; and he has 
all but retired from the turf. Mr. Vansittart 
has also been a long time on the turf, and 
ran second, 1832, for the Derby, with 
Perion. He is a breeder of race-horses, 
and sold Rockingham for one thousand 
guineas to Mr. Watt. This horse won a 
good stakes at York Spring Meeting, 
1 beautifully ridden by Darling'; and the 
great St. Leger stakes of the same year at 
Doncaster. He is now the property of Mr. 
Theobald, of Stockwell, and has been a 
great winner up to the present time. Mr. 
Vansittart is a good judge, and always rims 


his horses to win, if they can. Mr. Hunter, 
of Six-Mile-Bolton, near Newmarket, is a 
first-rate judge of racing, and considered a 
good bettor. He won the Derby in 1821, 
with Gustavus, and has since used him as 
a stud-horse, but not to much profit. He 
made some amends by producing Forester, 
the winner of the July stakes, in 1832, and 
of several other things, and who was backed 
freely for the Derby, being out of an Orville 
mare. With the exception of the great card 
in their pack, all the Peels have a taste for the 
turf. The Colonel, however, is the only one 
who has the courage to face Newmarket, 
which he does with nearly as good a stud as 
is to be found even there, and has had his 
share of success. The Colonel is a heavy 
bettor, and loses with a philosophic indiffer- 
ence, worthy of a nobler cause. Mr. Edmund 
Peel has a large stud at Hednesford, in 
Staffordshire, where he has erected excellent 
buildings for their accommodation. Mr. 
Massey Stanley, son to Sir Thomas, has a 
small but neat stud. Mr. Sowerby has like- 
wise a pretty stud, which he uses like a 
gentleman, for his amusement Mr. Scott 
Stonehewer is one of the same class, and won 


the Oaks with Variation, in 1830. Mr. 
Payne, of Sulby, has generally a small stud 
at Newmarket; and Mr. Osbaldeston has 
made his appearance on the heath, not as 
the Hercules of horsemen, as he proved 
himself in his awful match against time, 
but as the owner of a string of race-horses. 
We had rather the Squire had remained 
with his hounds in Northamptonshire, where 
nothing eclipsed his fame. 

But we must not ornit two of our first- 
class men, in this line, on Newmarket 
heath, viz., Lord George Bentinck, and 
Mr. Greville ; both said to be the best 
judges of racing, and the cleverest men 
at betting, of the present day. It is indeed 
asserted, that the only difficulty they are 
likely to have to contend with, is 'lame 
ducks' on the settling days, for they are 
very seldom on 'the wrong side the post.' 
The turf is also likely to gain an accession 
in a bunch of young noblemen just about 
to show forth, amongst whom are Lord 
Suffield, Lord Albert Conyngham, etc. 

It rarely happens that what are called 
provincial studs do much in what may be 
termed the capitals of the racing world ; 

1 3 o THE TURF 

but we cannot forget Lord Oxford beat- 
ing the crack nags at Newmarket, Eaton 
among the rest, with old Victoria, and 
his Hedgeford jockey, the late Tom Car; 
Mr. Glover winning the Craven with Slender 
Billy ; and, though last, not least, the great 
Worcestershire grazier (the late Mr. Terret, 
tenant of Mr. Lechmere Charlton) taking 
his fine Rubens horse, Sovereign, in his 
bullock caravan to Newmarket, winning the 
St. Leger stakes with him in a canter, 
and, what was still less expected, his rural 
jockey, Ben Moss, out-jockeying the best 
riders on the heath. Neither will the same 
jockey's performance on Lady Byron, over 
the course, to the benefit of the said grazier, 
be very soon forgotten. But, although we 
must not enter upon the large subject of 
the provincial studs, we cannot omit a 
notice of the late Mr. Riddell, of Felton 
Park, Northumberland, who died about four 
years back. He was a firm and liberal 
supporter of the northern turf, but con- 
spicuous chiefly as the owner of two very 
celebrated horses, viz., X. Y. Z. and Doctor 
Syntax unparalleled winners of gold cups; 
the former having won nine, and the latter 


twenty, besides four thousand pounds in 
specie ! The Doctor was one of the few 
modern racers that has appeared at the 
post for ten consecutive years during which 
period, however, he only started forty-nine 
times, or within a fraction of five times in 
each year, on the average winning twenty- 
six out of the above number of races. To 
this careful husbanding of his powers may 
his owners have been indebted for a great 
portion of his success. But he is descended 
from our very stoutest blood, being got by 
a son of Trumpator, as well as combining 
that of Regulus and Snap in his pedigree. 
He was bred by Mr. Osbaldeston, of 
Hummondsby, Yorkshire; and is the sire 
of Gallopade, a winner of four gold cups, 
at four starts only. Mr. Riddell was the 
breeder of Emancipation, purchased by the 
Duke of Cleveland for eighteen hundred 

Deservedly high as Newmarket stands in 
the history of the British turf, it is but as 
a speck on the ocean when compared with 
the sum total of our provincial meetings, 
of which there are about a hundred and 
twenty in England, Scotland, and Wales 


several of them twice in the year. Epsom, 
Ascot, York, Doncaster, and Goodwood 
stand first in respect of the value of the 
prizes, the rank of the company, and the 
interest attached to them by the sporting 
world, although several other cities and 
towns have lately exhibited very tempting 
bills of fare to owners of good race-horses. 
In point of antiquity, we believe the Roodee 
of Chester claims precedence of all country 
race-meetings; and certainly it has long 
been in high repute. Falling early in the 
racing year always the first Monday in 
May it affords a good trial for young 
horses, and there is plenty of money to be 
run for by the old ones, who come out fresh 
and well. This meeting is most numerously 
attended by the families of the extensive and 
very aristocratic neighbourhood in which it 
is placed, and always continues five days. 
The course is far from a good one, being on a 
dead flat, with rather a sharp turn near home, 
in consequence of which several accidents 
have occurred, particularly previously to 
some late improvements. 1 When we state 

1 The following most extraordinary accident happened 
here some years back. A colt called Hairbreadth, by 


that there are nine good sweepstakes, a 
king's plate, two very valuable cups, and 
five plates at Chester, its superiority as a 
country meeting will speak for itself. 1 

Epsom, however, ranks first after New- 
market. It is sufficient, perhaps, to state, 
that there were no less than one hundred 
and fourteen colts entered for the last Derby 
stakes, and ninety-seven fillies for the Oaks 
their owners paying fifty sovereigns each 
for those that started, and twenty-five for 

Escape, the property of the late Mr. Lockley, bolted 
over the ropes, and coming in contact with an officer 
of dragoons, Sir John Miller, who was on horseback, 
was killed by the peak of the helmet entering his skull, 
when on the head of the baronet^ who escaped with 
trifling injury ! 

1 The Eaton stud now cuts but a poor figure on the 
far-famed Roodee, as indeed, Touchstone excepted, on 
most other courses. Mr. Clifton is no more, but his 
memory will live at Chester for many years to come. 
Lord Stamford and his Sir Olivers have deserted it. 
Sir Watkin William Wynn has not a race-horse ; Mr. 
Mytton, one of the greatest supporters of this meeting, 
is dead. Sir Thomas Stanley is no longer ' cock of the 
walk ' ; nor can Sir George Pigot run second. The 
Lord Derby is no more ; and although (scripsisse pudet] 
parson Nanny stands his ground, Sir James Boswell, 
Messrs. Houldsworth, Giffard, Walker, Mostyn, and a 
few more fresh competitors of the new school, have lately 
carried most of the north-west-country honours. 


those that did not. There are, likewise, a 
gold cup, and several other stakes, as well 
as three plates. Independently of seeing 
him run, amateur admirers of the race-horse 
have here a fine opportunity of studying him 
in the highest state of his perfection. We 
allude to the place called the Warren, in 
which the Derby and Oaks horses are 
saddled and mounted. It is a small but 
picturesque bit of ground in the forest style, 
enclosed by a wall, and entered by all who 
choose to pay a shilling. To some it is 
a great treat to see the celebrated New- 
market jockeys, who may be only known to 
them by name. A view of half the aristo- 
cracy of England, also, is, even in these 
times, worth a shilling to many. The 
sporting men, meanwhile, reap much advan- 
tage from their anxious inspection of the 
horses as they walk round this rural circus. 
They can closely observe the condition 
of their favourites ; and should anything 
dissatisfy them, they have a chance to 
hedge something before the race is run, 
although the ring is generally broken up a 
short time after the horses are assembled 
in the Warren. 


But what is the sight in the Warren, 
interesting as it really is thousands on 
thousands depending on the result, ruinous 
perhaps to many compared with the start 
for the race ? Fancy twenty-four three-year 
colts, looking like six-year-old horses, with 
the bloom of condition on their coats, 
drawn up in a line at the starting-place, 
with the picked jockeys of all England on 
their backs, and on the simple fact of 
which may prove the best perhaps a million 
sterling depends. They are off ! i No, no,' 
cries one jockey, whose horse turned his 
tail to the others just as the word ' Go ' was 
given. It is sufficient : 'tis no start : ' Come 
back!' roars the starter. Some are pulled up 
in a few hundred yards others go twice as 
far. But look at that chestnut colt white 
jacket and black cap with thousands de- 
pending upon him ! He is three parts of 
the way to Tattenham's corner before his 
rider can restrain him. Talk of agonising 
moments ! the pangs of death ! what can 
at all equal these? But there are no 
winnings without losings, and it is nuts to 
those who have backed him out. Who can 
say, indeed, but that, his temper being 

i 3 6 THE TURF 

known, the false start may have been con- 
trived to accommodate him? However, 
they are all back again at the post, and 
each rider endeavouring to be once more 
well placed. Observe the cautious John 
Day, how quietly he manoeuvres to obtain 
an inside location for his worthy master, 
his Grace of Grafton. Look at neat little 
Arthur Pavis, patting his horse on the neck 
and sides, and admiring himself at the 
same time ; but his breeches and boots are 
really good. Watch Sam Chifney minutely ; 
but first and foremost his seat in the 

{ Incorpsed and demi-natured 
With the brave beast' 

and his countenance ! 'tis calm, though 
thoughtful. But he has much to think of; 
he and his confederates have thousands on 
the race, and he is now running it in his 
mind's eye. Harry Edwards and Robinson 
are side by side, each heavily backed to 
win. How they are formed to ride ! Surely 
Nature must have a mould for a jockey for 
the purpose of displaying her jewel, the 
horse. And that elegant horseman Sam 


Day; but see how he is wasted to bring 
himself to the weight! Observe the 
knuckles of his hands and the patellae of 
his knees, how they appear almost breaking 
through the skin! But if he have left 
nearly half of his frame in the sweaters, the 
remaining half is full of vigour; and we'll 
answer for it his horse don't find him want- 
ing in the struggle. Then that slim young 
jockey, with high cheek bones and long 
neck, in the green jacket and orange cap 
surely he must be in a galloping consump- 
tion. There is a pallid bloom on his 
sunken cheek, rarely seen but on the face 
of death, and he wanted but the grave- 
clothes to complete the picture. Yet we 
need not fear ; he is heart-whole and well : 
but having had short notice, has lost fifteen 
pounds in the last forty-eight hours. They 
are off again ! a beautiful start and a still 
more beautiful sight ! All the hues of the 
rainbow in the colours of the riders and 
the complexions of their horses ! What a 
spectacle for the sportsmen, who take their 
stand on the hill on the course to see the 
first part of the race, and to observe the 
places their favourites have gotten ; they are 


all in a cluster , the jockeys glancing at each 
other's horses, for they cannot do more in 
such a crowd. They are soon, however, a 
little more at their ease ; the severity of the 
ground, and the rapidity of the pace, throw 
the soft-hearted ones behind ! and at Tat- 
tenham's corner there is room for observa- 
tion. ' I think I can win,' says Robinson to 
himself, ' if I can but continue to live with 
my horses ; for I know I have the speed of 
all here. But I must take a strong pull 
down this hill, for we have not been coming 
over Newmarket flat.' Pavis's horse is going 
sweetly, and the Yorkshireman, Scott, lying 
well up. But where is Chifney ? Oh ! like 
Christmas, he *s coming, creeping up in his 
usual form, and getting the blind side of 
Harry Edwards. Chappie is here on a 
dangerous horse, 1 and John Day with a 
strain of old Prunella. // is a terrible race ! 
There are seven in front within the distance, 
and nothing else has a chance to win. The 
set-to begins ; they are all good ones. Whips 
are at work the people shout hearts throb 

1 It will be observed that the above was written 
in the year 1833, when Mr. Sadler's Dangerous was 
a favourite for the Derby stakes, which he won. 


ladies faint the favourite is beat white 
jacket with black cap wins. 

Now a phalanx of cavalry descend the 
hill towards the grand stand, with ' Who has 
won ? ' in each man's mouth. ' Hurrah ! ' 
cries one, on the answer being given ; ' my 

fortune is made ! ' ' Has he, by ? ' 

says another, pulling up with a jerk ; ' 1 am 
a ruined man ! Scoundrel that I was to risk 
such a sum ! and I have too much reason 
to fear I have been deceived ! Oh ! how 
shall I face my poor wife and my children ? 
I '11 blow out my brains.' But where is the 
owner of the winning horse ? He is on the 
hill, on his coach-box ; but he will not 
believe it till twice told. * Hurrah ! ' he 
exclaims, throwing his hat into the air. A 
gipsy hands it to him. It is in the air 
again, and the gipsy catches it, and half a 
sovereign besides, as she hands it to him 
once more. ' Heavens bless your honour,' 
says the dark ladye; 'did I not tell your 
honour you could not lose ? ' 

There are two meetings now at Epsom, 
as indeed there were more than half a 
century back ; but the October Meeting is of 
minor importance. The grand-stand on "the 


course is the largest in Europe ; and to give 
some idea of its magnificence, it has been 
assessed to the poor-rate at five hundred 
pounds per annum. The exact expense of 
its erection is not known to us, but the 
lawyer's bill alone was five hundred and 
fifty-seven pounds. Poor distressed Eng- 
land ! 

Ascot also stands in the foremost rank 
of country races. It is of a different com- 
plexion from Epsom, not only by reason of 
its being graced with royalty, and aristocracy 
in abundance, but as wanting that crowd 
of * nobody knows who,' which must be 
encountered on a Derby day the cockney's 
holiday. It is likewise out of reach of 
London ruffians a great recommendation ; 
and the strictness of the police makes even 
thieves scarce. But the charms of Ascot, 
to those not interested in the horses, consist 
in the promenade on the course between 
the various races, where the highest fashion, 
in its best garb, mingles with the crowd, 
and gives a brilliant effect to the passing 
scene. In fact, it comes nearest to Elysium 
of anything here, after Kensington Gardens, 
in 'the leafy month of June.' Then the 


King's approach, with all the splendour of 
majesty, and, what is still more gratifying, 
amidst the loud acclamations of his subjects, 
sets the finish on the whole. Long may 
the royal name be venerable to the English 

Goodwood is the next great aristocratic 
meeting in the south, and has monopolised 
nearly all the racing of those parts. The 
Drawing-Room and the Goodwood stakes, 
and the cup, are prizes of such high value, 
that, as birds peck at the best fruit, all the 
crack horses of Newmarket are brought 
thither to contend for them. The corpora- 
tion of Chichester add one hundred pounds 
to the cup, and his Majesty gives a one 
hundred-guinea plate. The course at Good- 
wood is also one of the best in England, 
nearly ten thousand pounds having been 
expended upon it including the stand and 
the improvement of the road leading to it 
by the Duke of Richmond ; but his grace 
will be reimbursed if the meeting continues, 
by the admission-tickets to the stand, etc. 

Let us take one glance of that modern 
Epirus, the county of York, in which there 
are now twelve meetings in the year (nearly 


a century ago there were half as many more). 
York is one of our oldest race-meetings, 
and was patronised by the great sportsmen 
of all countries in former days ; but the 
names of Cookson, Wentworth, Goodricke, 
Garforth, Hutchinson, Crompton, Gascoigne, 
Sitwell, Pierse, Shafto, and some others, 
appear indigenous to Knavesmere Heath. 
The money run for at the Spring and August 
Meetings, 1832, exceeded fourteen thousand 
six hundred pounds in plates and sweep- 
stakes ; yet they are now greatly on the 
wane. Catterick Bridge, in this county, is 
also an important meeting, as coming very 
early in the season ; and Richmond and 
Pontefract are tolerably supported, But 
what shall we say of Doncaster ? 

* Troy once was great, but oh ! the scene is o'er, 
Her glory vanished and her name no more ! ' 

And wherefore this? Is it that we miss 
Mrs. Beaumont in her coach-and-six, with 
her numerous outriders? Is it that the 
lamented Earl Fitzwilliam, with his splendid 
retinue, is no longer there ? Oh, no ! the 
magnates of Devonshire, Cleveland, Leeds, 
Londonderry, and Durham, can replace all 


that at any time ; but it is the many dirty 
tricks, the innumerable attempts at roguery, 
which have lately been displayed, that have 
given a taint to Doncaster race-ground which 
it will require many years of clean fallow to 
get rid of. We will not enumerate these 
vile/a uxpas the last but one, ' the swindle,' 
as it is termed, the most barefaced of all 
but let the noblemen and gentlemen who 
wish well to Doncaster, and who do not 
wish to see the meeting expunged from the 
Racing Calendar^ act a little more vigorously 
than they have hitherto done, and not let 
villainy go unpunished before their eyes. 
Let a mark be set upon all owners, trainers, 
and riders of horses with which tricks are 
played; let them be driven off the course 
by order of the stewards ; let them never 
again appear at the starting-post or in the 
betting-ring ; and then, but not till then, 
will racing be once more respectable. Let 
us indulge our hopes that this will be the 
case, and that Yorkshire racing no longer 
shall be the reproach of the present age. 
' All these storms that fall upon us,' said 
Don Quixote, ' are signs the weather will 
clear up the evil having lasted long, the 


good can't be far off/ May it prove so 
here ! l 

The alteration in the amount of the St. 
Leger stakes will do something towards 
abating trickery at Doncaster. The sum 
subscribed was twenty-five sovereigns, play 
or pay. It is now fifty sovereigns, half 
forfeit. The lightness of the old charge 
induced several ill-disposed persons to bring 
their horses to the post, purposely to create 
false starts ; and it will be recollected that, 
in 1827, there were no less than eight of 
these, to which the defeat of Mameluke 
was chiefly attributed. The grand-stand 
on this course is one of the finest in Eng- 
land; and if the genius of taste had pre- 
sided at the building of it, we scarcely know 
what improvement could have been made. 
The betting-room has been considered 
thoroughly Greek ! 

Although we have reason to believe that 
there have been fewer attempts at turf 

1 An amendment in these matters is already apparent. 
The eyes of noblemen and gentlemen have been opened 
to certain proceedings, and the turf is evidently in a 
more healthy state than it was when these papers first 
appeared in the Quarterly Review. 


roguery within the last three or four years 
than formerly; and we know that the ex- 
posure of it in these pages has not been 
without its effect ; yet we regret to be 
obliged to say, that the snake, though 
scotched, is not yet killed. That the Don- 
caster St. Leger race of 1834 was a robbery, 
there is not to be found a man in all his 
Majesty 's dominions, unconnected with the 
fraud, to deny. But by what means the 
best horse that England has seen since the 
days of Eclipse a horse allowed to have 
been (as Plenipotentiary was allowed to 
have been), a better horse than Priam was 
was made the worst horse in that race, 
so bad, indeed, as to have been beaten 
before he got a quarter of the distance he 
had to run will perhaps never be known, 
except to those who made him so. Mr. 
Batson, his owner, like ^Emilius Scaurus, 
the consul, stood on his character, and made 
no defence ; but, as a St. Leger horse is the 
property of the public, we think the public 
had a right to some kind of explanation 
under Mr. Batson's hand. He might have 
followed the example of the late Colonel 
King, in the Bessy Bedlam robbery at 'the 

1 4 6 THE TURF 

same place, and for the same stakes, in 
1828. The Colonel sent a statement of all 
he knew of the foul transaction to a London 
newspaper, leaving the public to judge for 
themselves from the facts he detailed. 
Neither did the St. Leger of 1834 pass off 
with this single fraud. A bet of a thousand 
guineas was made by two persons, renowned 
on the turf, whom we call A and B. A 
backed the field against certain horses 
named by B, of which Touchstone, the 
winner, was not one. B, however, claimed 
the bet, and produced his list, in which 
Touchstone, the winner, was named at the 
bottom of it. A also produced his list, in 
which Touchstone the winner was not 
named by B ; and was therefore of course 
a winner for him. The Jockey Club was 
resorted to, and the following was the 
result of their investigation: 'The name 
of Touchstone/ said Mr. Wilson, the father 
of the turf, 'certainly appears in B's list, 
and apparently written with the same ink. 
Now my old friend Robarts, the banker, 
told me there is a species of ink that can 
be made to match any shade which that 
liquid may exhibit, if examined by daylight ; 


but if put to the test of a candle, a differ- 
ence of tint is plainly shown. Let the 
room be made dark, then, and candles 
produced.' Now mark the result, which 
we are sorry thus to proclaim to the world, 
particularly as the offending party writes 
Honourable before his name. 'Let the 
gentlemen be shown into the room,' said 
Mr. Wilson ; when he pronounced the 
following verdict : * A wins from B one 
thousand guineas ! ' 

It was a forgery ! Gentlemen of England 
dissociate yourselves from persons who have 
thus disgraced your order; or, if that be 
impossible, withdraw yourselves at once 
from the turf. 

On more accounts than one our turf 
proceedings must make foreigners marvel. 
Some years since, a French gentleman 
visited Doncaster, and gave it the appellation 
of 'the guinea meeting,' nothing without 
the guinea. 'There was,' said he, 'the 
guinea for entering the rooms to hear the 
people bet. There was the guinea for my 
dinner at the hotel. There was the guinea 
for the stand, for myself; and (phi .exe- 
crable f) the guinea for the stand for my 


carriage. There was the guinea for my 
servant's bed, and (ah ! mon Dieu /) ten 
guineas for my own, for only two nights ! ' 
Now we cannot picture to ourselves Mon- 
sieur at Doncaster a second time ; but if 
his passion for the race should get the 
better of his prudence, we only trust he 
will not be so infamously robbed again. 
Indeed, he may assure himself of this ; for 
Doncaster will never be what it has been, 
nor is it fitting it should be. 

Warwick, Manchester, Liverpool, Chelten- 
ham, Bath, and Wolverhampton are now 
among our principal country race-meetings, 
and all of these have wonderfully increased 
within the last few years ; particularly Liver- 
pool a very young meeting, but which bids 
fair to catch the forfeited honours of Don- 
caster. Stockbridge also is now in repute, 
owing to the Bibury Club being held there 
a renewal of the Burford Meeting, one 
of the oldest in England. Bath and Liver- 
pool have races twice in the year, and the 
valuable produce stakes which all these 
young meetings have instituted are likely 
to ensure their continuance ; as to the ever 
princely-hearted Liverpool at all events, 


there can be little fear. Speaking gener- 
ally, however, nothing fluctuates more than 
the scene of country racing. Newton, in 
Lancashire, still keeps its place ; but Knuts- 
ford and Preston decline ; and Oxford, once 
so good, we may consider gone. At the 
latter place, indeed, it has been Dilly, 
Sadler, and Day then Day, Sadler, and 
Dilly winning everything till country 
gentlemen became tired of the changes 
being rung upon them. 

It was high time that a change, to a certain 
extent, should be made in country racing 
but in some respects it has gone too far 
we allude to the value of the prizes. A 
hundred years ago, breeding and training 
of race-horses costing comparatively little, 
running for fifty pound plates might have 
paid. Eclipse, indeed, was nothing but a 
plate-horse, having, in all his running, only 
won two thousand pounds, and the manor- 
bowl in the good city of Salisbury ! l But 

1 He won eleven king's plates, carrying twelve stone 
in all but one ; was never beaten ; and always ridden 
without whip or spurs. He died, 27th of February, 
1789. The ' manor-bowl ' is still a prize, and was won 
at the last meeting by a horse belonging to Mr. Stevens 
the trainer, at Isley, Berkshire. 


nothing can nowadays be got by plating ; 
and the contest by heats, many of them 
four miles with high weights, borders on 
cruelty. On the other hand, out of nearly 
thirty races last year, at Liverpool there 
were only three run at heats, and not one 
four-mile race. At Newmarket there have 
been no heats, except for a town-plate, since 
1772, a most beneficial change, and credit- 
able to the feeling of British sportsmen. 
This, indeed, is as it should be; man 
should on no account inflict unnecessary 
labour on the horse, and, above all, on the 
race-horse. From no apparent motive but 
that generous spirit of emulation which dis- 
tinguishes him above most other animals, 
and entitles him to our high regard, how 
he struggles to serve and gratify us ! All 
these things considered, we are inclined 
to wish well to country racing, as in itself 
a harmless privileged pleasure, which all 
classes have the power to partake of; in- 
deed, we envy not the man whose heart is 
not gladdened by the many happy faces on 
a country race-course. In fact, the passion 
for racing, like that of hunting, is constitu- 
tionally inherent in man, and we cannot 


reform nature without extinguishing it alto- 
gether. The Isthmian games suffered no 
intermission, even when Corinth was made 
desolate, the Sicyonians being permitted 
to celebrate them until Corinth was again 
inhabited ; and it is certain that, during the 
embarrassments, privations, and panics to 
which England has been exposed during 
the last twenty years, racing, particularly 
country racing, has progressively increased, 
and in many respects improved. 

We believe it is admitted, that in no 
country in the world do people ride with 
so daring a spirit as in the little island 
of Great Britain, and particularly in our 
Leicestershire hunts. But riding over a 
country, and race-riding, if they must be 
called sister-arts, are diverscz tamen, it being 
well known that many of our first-rate jockeys 
(Buckle among the number, who often at- 
tempted it) have made a poor appearance 
after hounds. On the turf, however, as on 
the field, our gentlemen ' delighting in horses * 
have, from old time, been forward to exhibit 
their prowess 

' Smit with the love of the laconic boot, 
The cap and wig succinct, the silken suit./ ; 


though we take it that it was not until 
the Bibury and Kingscote meetings that 
gentleman-jockeyship arrived at perfection 
in England. It is beyond a doubt that 
there were gentleman-jockeys at that time 
almost, if not quite, equal to the professional 
artists, and a few of them in nearly as high 
practice in the saddle. Amongst these first- 
rate hands were, the present Duke of Dorset, 
and George Germaine, his brother; Lords 
Charles Somerset, Milsington, and Delamere 
(then Mr. Cholmondeley), Sir Tatton Sykes ; 
Messrs. Delme Radclyffe, Hawkes, Bullock, 
Worral, George Pigot, Lowth, Musters, 
Douglas, Probyn, etc. Who was the best 
of these jockeys it might be invidious to 
say ; the palm of superiority for head, seat, 
and hand was generally given to the duke 
and Mr. Hawkes; but Messrs. Germaine, 
Delme Radclyffe, and Worral, were by 
some considered their equals. Lord Charles 
Somerset was a fine horseman, though too 
tall for a jockey, and he often rode a winner. 
Mr. Bullock was also very good till his leg 
and thigh were broken by his horse running 
against a post ; and Mr. Probyn was superior 
on a hard-pulling horse. Mr. Delme Rad- 


clyffe often rode in the Oaks, and continued 
to ride at Goodwood and Egham, till nearly 
the last year of his life. All the others have 
retired, and some to their long home : but 
it is favourable to this manly pastime, and 
the temperate habits which it induces, to 
state that, out of seven gentleman-jockeys 
who rode thirty-two years ago at Lichfield, 
only one, Mr. D. Radclyffe, who rode the 
winner, has died a natural death ; all the 
others being alive, with the exception of 
Mr. Bullock, who was drowned. 

The eminent jockeys of the present day are 
Lord Wilton, Messrs. White, Osbaldeston, 
Bouverie, Peyton, Kent, Molony, two 
Berkeleys, Platel, Burton, Griffiths, Becher, 
Gilbert, and others whose names do not 
this moment occur to us. But looking at 
the value of the prizes at Heaton Park, for 
example (where, until last year, gentlemen 
alone were allowed to ride), Bath, Croxton 
Park, and several other places, we marvel 
not at the proficiency of these patrician 
jockeys ; and during certain parts of the 
racing season, such performers as Lord 
Wilton, Messrs. White, Peyton, Kent, and 
one or two more of the best of them, are 


in nearly as much request as the regular 
hired jockeys, and are obliged to prepare 
themselves accordingly. Wishing them well, 
we have but one word to offer them. For 
the credit of the turf, let them bear in mind 
what the term gentleman-jockey implies, and 
not, as in one or two instances has been the 
case, admit within their circle persons little, 
if anywise, above the jockey by profession. 
This has been severely commented upon as 
having led to disreputable practices, with 
which the name the sacred name of 
gentleman should never have been mixed 
up. With this proviso^ and considering 
what might be likely to take the place of 
'the laconic boot,' were it abandoned, we 
feel no great hesitation about saying, go 

1 Win the plate, 
Where once your nobler fathers won a crown/ 

A new system of racing has lately sprung 
up in England, which, however characteristic 
of the daring spirit of our countrymen, we 
know not how to commend. We allude to 
the frequent steeple-races that have taken 
place in the last few years, and of which, 
it appears, some are to be periodically re- 


peated. If those whose land is thus tres- 
passed upon are contented, or if recompense 
be made to such as are not, we have nothing 
further to say on that score ; but we should 
be sorry that the too frequent repetition of 
such practices should put the farmers out 
of temper, and thus prove hurtful to fox- 
hunting. We may also take the liberty to 
remark, that one human life and several 
good horses have already been the penalty 
of this rather unreasonable pastime ; and 
that, from the pace the horses must travel 
at, considerable danger to life and limb is 
always close at hand. 1 What are called 
hurdle-races are still more absurd, by blend- 
ing the qualifications of the race-horse with 
the hunter, at a time of the year very unfit 
for the experiment. 

In Scotland, racing is progressing steadily, 
and in very good hands in those chiefly of 
Lords Kelburne, now Lord Wemyss, Elcho, 
and Eglinton, Sir James Boswell, General 
Sharpe, and Mr. Ramsay. The crack man 

1 We recommend the uninitiated, who wish to have 
some notion of a steeple-chace, to study an admirable 
set of prints on that subject lately published, after 
drawings by the Hogarth of the chace, Mr. Alken. & 


is Sir James Boswell, to whose honourable 
name no less than a dozen horses appeared 
in the calendar, amongst them General 
Chasse, the best country horse that has 
been out for some time. Lord Kelburne 
is an extensive breeder, and had in his stud 
those celebrated horses Actseon, now the 
property of his Majesty, and Jerry, by 
Smolensko, a winner of the Doncaster St. 
Leger. The principal meeting in Scotland 
is the Caledonian Hunt Meeting, at which 
there are a king's plate of one hundred 
guineas, two cups, and several plates and 
stakes. The Duke of Buccleugh gives a 
whip to be run for ; but his grace confines 
his sporting propensities to the amusements 
of flood and field. There are also races at 
Cupar, Dumfries, and Edinburgh where 
his Majesty gives a plate, and the Duke of 
Buccleugh fifty pounds, as well as a gold 
cup by subscription and also at Kelso, 
where there is a stakes, called the Oats 
stakes, to which each subscriber contributes 
five bolls : Dr. Johnson would have pro- 
nounced this to have been perfectly charac- 

After the example of England, racing is 


making considerable progress in various 
parts of the world. In the East Indies, 
there are regular meetings in the three 
different presidencies, and there is also the 
Bengal Jockey Club. In the United States, 
breeding and running horses are advancing 
with rapid strides ; and the grand match at 
New York, between Henry and the Eclipse, 
afforded a specimen of the immense interest 
attached to similar events. 1 In Germany 
we find three regular places of sport, viz., 
Gustrow, Dobboran, and New Branden- 
burg ; and the Duke of Holstein-Augusten- 
burg has established a very promising one 
in his country. His serene highness and 
his brother, Prince Frederick, have each a 
large stud of horses, from blood imported 
from England ; and, amongst the con- 
spicuous German sportsmen who have 
regular racing establishments, under the 
care of English training-grooms, are Counts 
Hahn, Plessen, Bassewitz (two), Moltke, 

1 There are two Sporting Magazines now published 
in America, one at Stockholm and Paris, and one in 
the East Indies (called the Oriental Sporting Magazine). 
A king's plate is also now given by William iv., of 
England, to be run over the Three Rivers course, in 


and Voss ; Barons de Biel, Hertefeldt, and 
Hamerstein. The Duke of Lucca has a 
large stud ; and the stables at Marlia have 
been rebuilt in a style of grandeur equal to 
the ducal palace. At Naples, racing has 
been established, and is flourishing. Eleven 
thoroughbred horses were, a year or two 
back, shipped at Dover, on their road to 
that capital, and which were to be eighty 
days on their journey, after landing at 
Calais. Prince Butera's breeding-stud, on 
the southern coast of Sicily, is the largest 
in these parts : it was founded by a son of 
Haphazard, from a few English mares ; and 
his highness is one of the chief supporters 
of Neapolitan horse-racing. In Sweden is 
some of our best blood, and Count Woron- 
zow and others have taken some good blood- 
stock to Russia. In Austria four noblemen 
subscribe to our Racing Calendar ; in 
Hungary, eight; in Prussia, two. As I 
have not the last Racing Calendar^ there 
may be more subscribers now; but, of all 
wonders, who would look for racing in good 
form at Van Diemen's Land ? There, how- 
ever, it is : we perceive several well-bred 
English horses in the lists of the cattle at 


Hobart Town, where they have three days' 
racing for plates, matches, and sweepstakes 
(one of fifty sovereigns each), with ordinaries, 
and balls, and six thousand spectators on 
the course ! This little colony is progressing 
in many odd ways ; it turns out, inter alia, 
as pretty an { Annual/ whether we look to 
the poetry or the engraving, as any one 
could have expected from a place of three 
times its standing ; though the engraving, to 
be sure, may be accounted for. 

Until lately France made very little pro- 
gress in racing ; it did not, neither do we 
think it ever will, generally suit the taste of 
that people. Much encouragement, however, 
being given to it by the government, in addi- 
tion to a strong penchant for the sport in the 
heir-apparent to the throne, it is at present 
greatly on the increase; and there are no 
less than twenty -four race meetings 1 ad- 
vertised in the French Racing Calendar^ in 
France and Belgium ; at several of which 

1 Aix - la - Chapelle, Aurillac, Blois, Bordeaux, 
Boulogne-sur-Mer, Bruxelles, Chantilly, Compiegne, 
Jouy (au clocher), Liege, Limoges, Maisons-sur-Seine, 
Moulins, Nemur, Nanci, Nantes, Paris, Pir (le), 
St. Brieux, St. Josse-te-Noode, St. Trond, Spa, 
Tarbes, Versailles. 


very good prizes are contended for, and the 
horses trained and ridden by English grooms 
and jockeys. The principal ones of France 
are those of Paris and Chantilly, and that 
of Belgium, Brussels, at which prizes worth 
contending for are given ; and at the first 
named place there are two meetings in each 
year, namely, in May and September. Each 
of these countries also has its Jockey Club 
and Racing Calendar \ and some idea may 
be formed of the interest taken by the 
nobility and gentry, to whom such matters 
are at present confined the betting man, 
or leg, not having yet made his debut on 
the continent in their contests for the palm 
of honour, by the fact of there having been 
nearly twelve thousand pounds betted on 
the event of the Jockey Club plate (won 
by Lord Henry Seymour's Frank) at the 
Chantilly races in April last. 

The principal breeders of thorough-bred 
horses in France are his Royal Highness 
the Duke of Orleans, and Lord Henry 
Seymour, second son to the Marquis of 
Hertford, each of whom has a large breeding- 
stud at about three leagues distant from 
Paris, and stables for training in the Bois 


de Boulogne, the Hyde Park of that metro- 
polis, in the roads and cross-roads of which 
the various horses are galloped and sweated. 
The stables of the duke are hired, but those 
of Lord Henry were built by his lordship at 
an expense of twelve thousand pounds, and 
are, for their size and conveniences, not 
excelled in Europe. There is likewise a 
public training-stable in 'The Wood,' kept 
by a Newmarket man of the name of 
Palmer, in whom much confidence is placed 
by the noblemen and gentlemen who intrust 
their horses to his care. 1 

It may, perhaps, surprise the majority of 
our readers to hear the extent of the studs 
we have alluded to ; and we have reason to 
believe that that of Count Duval de Beaulieu, 
the President of the Belgic Jockey Club, 
exceeds them both in number. That of the 
Duke of Orleans, however, consists of seven 
brood-mares, exclusive of some lately sold, 
nineteen colts and fillies in the paddocks, 
and ten in training; total thirty-six. This 

1 A full account of the proceedings of the French and 
Belgic turf will be found in Nimrod's ' French Tour/ in 
the New Sporting Magazine for the months of July and 
September, 1836. 



does not include the stud-horses, amongst 
which are Rowlston and Tandem ; and in 
the government establishment, in the Wood, 
are Spectre, Cadland, and Sir Benjamin 
Backbite, and Alterateur by Orville. 

The stud of Lord Henry Seymour con- 
tains nine brood-mares, twelve one and 
two-year-old colts and fillies, and fourteen 
in training ; total thirty-five, exclusive of the 
stud-horses, amongst which is Royal Oak, 
purchased by his lordship for six hundred 
guineas. Also, amongst the horses in 
training, is Ibrahim, late the property of 
the Earl of Jersey, winner of the last year's 
second Riddlesworth stakes, the two thou- 
sand guinea stakes, the Grand Duke Michael 
stakes, as well as some other ' good things ' 
at Newmarket, and once first favourite for 
the Derby, which, however, he did not win. 

Racing in Germany is considerably on 
the increase; fresh places for sport having 
sprung up within the last four years, par- 
ticularly Hamburg and Berlin, where two 
thousand pounds of public money is given 
to be run for. In short, throughout the 
states of Mecklenburg and Holstein, as 
well as, indeed, the whole of Germany and 


Prussia, including Hanover, the spirit for 
racing is becoming general, and a peep into 
Messrs. Tattersalls' books would show that 
no expense is spared in procuring the best 
English blood. And all this is the fruit of 
one German nobleman, Baron Biel, of Zieron, 
near Wiswar, who supplied this part of the 
continent with the materials for the turf in 
the following manner : The baron, having 
made a large and valuable selection of 
English thorough-bred horses and mares, 
had an annual sale of the produce after 
the following fashion : about a month pre- 
vious to foaling-time, tickets were made out 
of the anticipated produce of each mare (the 
mares themselves being of course reserved), 
and put into a bag. The baron then drew 
out six lots for himself, thereby standing the 
same chance as the public as to future 
proceedings on the racecourse; and then 
those lots which remained were sold without 
reserve, to be delivered when weaned. The 
prices averaged about sixty guineas per lot, 
which, considering the possibility of the 
chickens not being hatched at all, or of 
being very short-lived, may be considered 
as good. 

1 64 THE TURF 

The baron's efforts to introduce racing 
into his part of the world have been crowned 
with complete success. Although he has at 
present some powerful competitors in the 
Duke of Holstein-Augustenburg, Counts 
Hahn, Plessen, Bassewitz, and others, his 
stable the two last years has been pre- 
eminent, winning most of the best prizes 
at the various meetings alluded to, and 
keeping the two challenge whips in his 
possession. He also had the satisfaction 
of witnessing the success of several of his 
brother sportsmen's horses, the issue of his 
stud) and of the best colt of last year, the 
property of Count Hahn, by Godolphin, out 
of a Whalebone mare sold to the count by 
himself. 1 It will be recollected that Count 
Hahn purchased Godolphin, and resold him 
to England, after having used him one 
season as a stud-horse. 

But it is in the New World in America 
that racing, and the consequent improve- 
ment of horses, are making the most rapid 

1 Baron Biel has at present the following stud- 
horses : Varro, brother to Emilius; Predictor; the 
brother to Interpreter; the General; and Joceline, by 
Catton, out of General Mina's dam. 


progress; so much so indeed as, from the 
excellent choice they make in their stud- 
horses, to incline some persons to the opinion 
that in the course of half another century 
we shall have to go to the United States to 
replenish our own blood, which must de- 
generate if that of the most sound and 
enduring qualities is transported to that 
country. For example, in the American 
Turf Register for March last is a list of 
twenty-nine thorough-bred English horses 
propagating their stock throughout the 
various states, amongst which are Appari- 
tion, Autocrat, Barefoot, Claret, Chateau 
Margaux, Consol, Emancipation, Hedgeford, 
Luzborough, Leviathan, Lapdog, Margrave, 
Merman, Rowton, Sarpedon, St. Giles, 
Shakspeare, Tranby, and Young Truffle. 
To these are to be added Glencoe, and, 
alas ! Priam, at the extraordinary cost of 
three thousand five hundred guineas ! 

The great and leading qualification of a 
horse bred for the turf is the immaculate 
purity of his blood. It is, then, little less 
than a misnomer to call a half-bred horse 
a race-horse ; it is like the royal stamp im- 
pressed upon base metal. Besides, what 


are called stakes for horses not thorough-bred 
have been the cause of much villany on the 
turf, by reason of the owners of full-bred 
horses producing false pedigrees with them, 
to enable them to start, when, of course, 
they are almost sure to win. Perhaps the 
most successful, and, at the same time, the 
most impudent case occurred in 1825, when 

a Mr. W took about the country a 

horse which he called ' Tom Paine/ by 
Prime Minister, not thorough-bred, and won 
several large stakes with him ; whereas this 
said Tom Paine was proved to be Tybalt, by 
Thunderbolt, and out of Lord Grosvenor's 
Meteora, by Meteor, the best mare in England 
of her day ! But, besides all this, we doubt 
a good result, as regards the horse and his 
uses, from these stakes. In the first place, 
a really half-bred horse will rarely endure 
severe training ; and, if he does, his con- 
stitution and temper are all but sure to be 
ruined by it. Secondly, however good he 
may be as a half-bred racer, he cannot 
transmit his base blood to posterity. Again, 
regular trainers dislike having to do with 
half-bred horses, and seldom give them fair 
play, i.e. seldom trouble themselves to go 


out of the usual course with them in their 
work, which must be done to bring them well 
to the post. Finally, these stakes are also 
the very hot-bed of wrangles ; and the system 
lately adopted of produce-stakes for half- 
bred horses opens a still wider door for 
villany and fraud. We wish we could see 
the turf confined to pure blood. 

But we must not conclude this article 
without a word or two to the young gentlemen 
just starting into the world who may have 
imbibed the ambition of shining on ihe 
English turf. Let every such person re- 
member that he presents a broad mark 
that there are hundreds on the watch for 
him and that he stakes what is certain 
against not only all other chances, but the 
rife chance of fraud ! Let him, before he 
plunges into the stream, consider a little 
how it runs, and whither it may lead him ! 
In these days, indeed, gambling is not con- 
fined to the turf, the hazard -room, the 
boxing-ring, or the cock-pit but is, un- 
fortunately, mixed up with too many of the 
ordinary occupations of life. { Commerce 
itself,' said Mr. Coke of Norfolk, in one of 
his public harangues, 'is become spe'cula- 


tion ; the object of a whole life of industry 
and integrity among our forefathers, is now 
attempted to be obtained in as many weeks 
or months as it formerly required years to 
effect/ This fatal passion has, indeed, taken 
fast hold on a great body of the people, and 
what is called a ' levanter ' is perhaps a less 
rare occurrence from the corn-market, the 
hop-market, or 'the alley, 7 than from the 
betting-ring or Tattersall's. But we are told 
that betting 

'Though no science, fairly worth the seven,' 

is the life of racing, and that without it the 
turf would soon fall into decay. To a cer- 
tain extent there may be some truth in this 
doctrine; nevertheless betting is the germ 
which gives birth to all the roguery that 
has of late lowered this department of sport 
in the eyes of all honourable men. The 
Scripture phrase, in short, is now every day 
verified, the race not being to the swift, but 
to the horse on whom the largest sums stand 
in certain person? books. Indeed, it was 
not long since asserted by a well-known 
rider and owner of race-horses, deep in 
turf secrets, that if Eclipse were here now, 


and in his very best form, but heavily backed 
to lose by certain influential bettors, he 
would have no more chance to win than 
if he had but the use of three of his legs. 
What, may we ask, must be the opinion of 
foreigners, when they read the uncontradicted 
statement of the New Sporting Magazine^ 
that in the Derby stakes of 1832, when St. 
Giles was the winner, every horse in the 
race, save one (Perion), was supposed to 
have been made safe i.e. safe not to win ? 
By whom made safe ? Not by their owners, 
for many of them were the property of 
noblemen and gentlemen of high personal 
character. The foul deed can only be per- 
petrated by the influence of vast sums of 
money employed in various ways upon the 
event in short, where the owners stand 
clear, trainers or jockeys must combine with 
the parties concerned in the robbery. But 
what a stain upon the boasted pastime of 
English gentlemen ! And then the result : 

' This yellow slave 

Will knit and break religions ; bless the accursed 
Make the hoar leprosy adored ; place thieves, 
And give them title, knee, and approbation, 
With senators on the bench ! ' 


But we may be told that racing or rather 
betting on racing, supposed to be essential 
to its existence cannot go on without what 
are called the * legs ' (described by an old 
writer on sporting subjects 'as the most 
unprincipled and abandoned set of thieves 
and harpies that ever disgraced civilised 
society'); and that pecuniary obligations 
are commonly discharged by them with as 
much integrity and despatch as by the most 
respectable persons in the commercial world. 
Undoubtedly they are ; for if they fail to be 
so, the adventurer is driven from the ground 
on which he hopes to fatten. * I would give 
fifty thousand pounds for a bit of character,' 
said the old sinner Charteris ; ' for if I had 
that, I think I could make a plum of it ' ; 
and the rogues of our day, though not so 
witty, are quite as knowing as the venerable 
colonel. 1 

Woe befall the day when Englishmen 
look lightly on such desperate inroads upon 
public morals as have lately passed under 
their eyes on race-courses ! Do they lose 
sight of the fact, that whoever commits a 

1 The word ' rogue ' is obsolete on the modern turf ; 
the term ' clever man ' has superseded it. 


fraud is guilty, not only of the particular 
injury to him whom he deceives, but of the 
diminution of that confidence which con- 
stitutes the very existence of society ? Can 
this familiarity with robbing and robbers 
be without its influence on a rising genera- 
tion ? We say it cannot ; and if suffered 
to go on for twenty years more, we venture 
to pronounce the most mischievous effects 
to all classes of society. Talk of jockey- 
club regulations ! As well might Madame 
Vestris sit in judgment on short petticoats, 
or Lord Grey on the sin of nepotism, as a 
jockey-club attempt then to pass censure 
on offences which they must have suffered 
to grow before their faces, if, indeed, they 
should have been so fortunate as all along 
to steer quite clear of them themselves. 

But let us look a little into these practices. 
In the first place, what is it that guides the 
leading men in their betting ? Is it a know- 
ledge of the horse they back either to win 
or to lose ? and is it his public running that 
directs their operations? We fear not. 
Three parts of them know no more of a 
horse than a horse knows of them ; but it 
is from private information, purchased at 


a high price at a price which ordinary 
virtue cannot withstand that their books 
are made up. Again ; how do the second- 
class of bettors act? We reply they bet 
upon men and not upon horses ; for so soon 
as they can positively ascertain that certain 
persons stand heavy against any one horse, 
that horse has no chance to win, unless, as 
it sometimes happens, he is too strong for 
his jockey, or the nauseating ball has not 
had the desired effect. He runs in front, 
it is true, for he can run to win ; but what 
is his fate ? Why, like the hindmost wheel 
of the chariot, he is 

' Cursed 
Still to be near, but ne'er to reach the first. ' 

Unfortunately for speculators on the turf, 
the present enormous amount of a few of 
our principal sweepstakes renders it impos- 
sible to restrict the owners of race-horses 
from starting more than one animal in the 
same race. The nominations for the Derby, 
Oaks, etc., take place when the colts are 
but one year old; consequently, many of 
them die before the day of running, or, what 
is worse, prove good for nothing on trial. 


Thus, the aspirant to the honour of winning 
them enters several horses for the same 
stakes, and perhaps two of the number 
come to the post, as was the case with 
Mameluke and Glenartney for the Derby 
of 1827 an occasion when the race was 
not to the swift, but to the horse which 
stood best in the book; the losing horse, 
it is not disputed, could have won, had he 
been permitted to do so. By the laws of 
racing this practice is allowable, 1 but it gives 
great cause for complaint, and opens a door 
for fraud. One of the heaviest bettors of 
the present day, who had backed Glen- 
artney to a large amount, observed that 
he should not have lamented his loss^ had 
it not been clear that Glenartney could have 
won. A similar occurrence took place in 
1832 for the same great race. Messrs. 
Gully and Ridsdale (confederates, and as 
such, allowed to do so) compromised to give 
the race to St. Giles, although doubtless 
Margrave could have won it. All outside 
bettors, as they are called those not in 

1 Lord Jersey declared to win with Mameluke, 
according to the rules of racing. 


the secret, as well as those not in the ring 
are of course put hors de combat by such 
proceedings ; their opinion of horses, formed 
from their public running the only honour- 
able criterion being sacrificed by this com- 
promise. But we will go one point further. 
It is proceedings such as these that are too 
often the cause of gentlemen on the turf 
swerving from the straightforward course ; 
men true as the sun in all private trans- 
actions allow themselves to deviate from 
the right path on a race-course, in revenge 
for what they deem to have been injustice. 
We could name several honourable and 
highly minded gentlemen who have openly 
avowed this : c Our money has been taken 
from us,' they have declared, * without our 
having a chance to keep it, and we will 
recover it in any way we can.' In truth, 
we are too much inclined to believe, that 
a modern Aristides has fearful odds against 
him on the English turf at the present time. 
Look, for example, at the sums paid for 
race-horses, which we think must open our 
eyes to the fact. Three thousand guineas 
are now given for a promising colt for the 
Derby stakes ! But how stands this favourite? 


There are upwards of a hundred horses be- 
sides himself named for the stake ; more 
than twenty will start for it ; and if he wins 
it, it does not amount to much above his 
cost price. But the purchaser will back him 
to win it. Indeed ! back him against such 
a field, several of which he knows have been 
running forward, and others of which have 
not appeared at all, and may be better than 
his own ! No ; these three-thousand-guinea 
horses are not bought to win the Derby ; 
but the price makes them favourites 
and then thousands are won by their losing 
it. We believe, however, this trick is now 
become too stale to succeed. 

Then there is another system which can- 
not be too severely reprobated namely, 
making a horse a favourite in the betting, 
and then selling him on the eve of a great 
play or pay race. We confess we could by 
no means understand 'the white- washing,' 
as it was termed by Lord Uxbridge, that the 
late Mr. Beardsworth obtained by his ex- 
planation of an affair of this nature at 
Doncaster. The act of selling a horse 
under such circumstances to a duke would 
have been a culpable one; but what must 


be thought of ' the merry sport ' of placing 
him in the hands of a ^//-keeper ? * 

One of the principal evils is the betting 
of trainers and jockeys. We may be asked, 
is there any harm in a trainer betting a few 
pounds on a horse he has in his stable, and 
which he thinks has a fair chance to win ? 
Certainly not; and the old, and the only 
proper way of doing this was, to ask the 
owner of the horse to let him stand some 
part of his engagements, a request that was 
never known to be refused. But then no 
trainer had a person betting for him by 
commission, and perhaps against the very 
horses he himself was bringing to the post 
reducing such bets to a certainty ! The 
evil of trainers becoming bettors has no 
bounds ; for when once they enter upon it, 
it is in vain to say to what extent the pursuit 
may lead them. Look to the case of Lord 

1 The racing world remember Mr. Watt's honourable 
conduct on this point, when offered a large price for 
Belzoni, a great favourite for the St. Leger. ' No,' said 
he, ' my horse is at present the property of the public. 1 
It is stated in the Old Sporting Magazine, for December, 
1835, p. 157 and uncontradicted that Mr. Mostyn had 
an offer made to him for the Queen of Trumps, on the 
day previous to her winning the St. Leger stakes, at 
Doncaster, of seven thousand pounds ! 


Exeter's late trainer, examined before the 
Jockey Club. He admitted having betted 
three hundred pounds against one of his 
master's horses. Was there any harm in 
that individual act ? None : because he 
had previously betted largely that the horse 
would win> and he had recourse to the 
usual, indeed to the only, means of securing 
himself from loss on finding that he was 
going wrong. But we maintain, that he had 
no right, as Lord Exeter's trainer and servant, 
to bet to an amount requiring such steps to 
be taken. Again ; who betted the three hun- 
dred pounds hedging-money for him ? Let 
those who inquired into the affair answer that ! 
Now what security had Lord Exeter that all 
the money had not been laid out against his 
horse, and then, we may ask, where was his 
chance to win ? Moreover, if trainers subject 
themselves to such heavy losses for this man, 
it seems, had a large sum depending on the 
event there is too much reason to fear they 
may be recovered at their masters' expense. 1 

1 This trainer sued a public betting man this last year 
for three thousand pounds on a bill given the June or 
July after the Derby, which the latter won and in 
which the former had a great public favourite, who w#s 
nowhere in the race ! 



The heavy betting of jockeys is still more 
fatal to the best interests of the turf, and 
generally, we may add, to themselves. Why 
did the late King dismiss Robinson, the 
second best, if not, as in some people's 
opinions, the best in every one's opinion 
the most successful jockey in England? 
Not because he had done wrong by the 
King's horses, but solely because his Majesty 
heard he was worth a large sum of money. 
What did the great jockey of the north get 
by his heavy betting ? Money, no doubt ; 
but dismissal from the principal stud of the 
north. In fact, no gentleman can feel him- 
self secure in the hands of either a trainer 
or a jockey who bets ; but of the two, the 
system may be most destructive with the 
jockey, as no one besides himself need be 
in the secret. If he bet against his horse, 
the event is of course under his control ; 
and such is the superiority of modern jockey- 
ship, that a race can almost always be thrown 
away without detection. On the other hand, 
if he back his horse heavily to win, he be- 
comes, from nervous trepidation, unfit to ride 
him, as has frequently been witnessed at 
Doncaster ; we need not mention names. 


The first admission we have on record of a 
jockey betting against himself, is in Genius 
Genuine, page 1 06, where the author, the late 
Samuel Chifney (1784), rides Lord Gros- 
venor's Fortitude, at York, against Faith and 
Recovery, backing Faith against Recovery, 
one win, or no bet, and Faith won. He adds, 
that he did not think he was acting impro- 
perly in making this bet, because, he says, 
he knew Fortitude was unfit to run. Now, 
as he has given his opinion on the case, we 
will give ours. Let us suppose that Lord 
Grosvenor thinking perhaps that his horse 
was fit to run had backed him heavily to 
win, and that his jockey had backed (as he 
admits he did) Faith to win. Fortitude and 
Faith come to a neck-and-neck race ; and 
what, may we ask, would be the result ? 
Why, we really have not faith enough 
to believe that Fortitude would have won. 
Indeed, we can fancy we hear the jockey's 
conversation with the inner man. 'The 
money is nothing to my lord/ he might say, 
1 but a great deal to me,' so one pull makes 
it safe ; and a few pricks of the spur, after 
he has passed the winning-post, serve to lull 
suspicion. To speak seriously a jockey's 


betting at all is bad enough, but his betting 
on any other horse in the race save his 
own is contrary to every principle, and 
fatal to the honour of the turf. 

We have already alluded to one system 
of turf plunder, that of getting-up favourites^ 
as the term is, by false trials and lies, for 
the sake of having them backed to win in 
the market, well knowing that all the money 
betted upon them must be lost. This is 
villainous ; but what can be said to the 
poisoning system the nauseating ball we 
have reason to fear an everyday occurrence, 
when a horse is placed under the master- 
key '? This is a practice of some standing 
on the turf (see Chifney's account of Creeper 
and Walnut, 1791), and was successfully 
carried on in the stables of the late Lord 
Foley, very early in the present century, 
when one of the party was hanged for the 
offence. But people know better now, and 
the disgrace of the halter is avoided; no 
post-mortem examination no solution of 
arsenic. A little opiate ball given overnight 
is all that is necessary to retard a horse in 
his race, but not prevent his starting. 
Winners of races are now not in request. 


A good favourite is the horse wanting, and 
there are many ways to prevent his winning 
this among the rest. 

There is one point more that we must 
touch on, 

' Disce, puer, virtutem ex me, verumque laborem, 
Fortunam ex aliis, ' 

says ^Eneas to his son, when he advises 
him not to trust to her wanton smiles for 
achievement and success. It is quite certain 
that luck has very little to do with racing, 
and the man who trusts to it will find he 
is leaning on a broken staff. To the owner 
of a racing stud, who means to act uprightly, 
nothing but good management can insure 
success, and even with this he has fearful 
odds against him, so many striving for the 
same prize. His horses must be well-bred, 
well-reared, well-engaged, well-trained, well- 
weighted, and well-ridden nothing else will 
succeed in the long run. Still less has luck 
to do with betting. The speculator on other 
people's horses can only succeed by the 
help of one or the other of these expedients 
namely, great knowledge of horseflesh and 
astute observation of public running, deep 

i8 2 THE TURF 

calculation, or secret fraud; and that the 
last-mentioned resource is the base on which 
many large fortunes have in our day been 
built, no man will be bold enough to deny. 
How many fine domains have been shared 
amongst those hosts of rapacious sharks, 
during the last two hundred years ! and, 
unless the system be altered, how many 
more are doomed to fall into the same 
gulph ! For, we lament to say, the evil 
has increased : all heretofore, indeed, has 
been ' tarts and cheese-cakes,' to the vil- 
lainous proceedings of the last twenty years 
on the English turf. l Strange ! But how 
is it that exposures l are not oftener made ? ' 

1 A very proper notice has been taken by the members 
of the Irish Turf Club, respecting an alleged attempt at 
fraud on the part of Mr. Ruthven, a member of the 
Reformed Parliament, and here a reformer on principle. 
The charge against him was, that of his having ran two 
horses in Ireland under false names and ages, thereby 
pocketing large sums of money ; and the following was 
the decision of the stewards, the Honourable John 
Westenra, John Maher, Esq., and the Earl of Howth, 
after a long and laborious investigation : ' Having 
most carefully examined the evidence produced before 
us, we are of opinion, that, in reference to Leinster and 
Old Bill, as also to Caroline and Becacine, a case of 
identity has been proved ; and we consider Mr. Ruthven's 


This question is very easily answered. It 
is the value of the prize that tempts the 
pirate ; and the extent of the plunder is now 
so great, that secrecy is purchased at any 

But shutting our eyes to this ill-featured 
picture, and imagining everything to be 
honourably conducted, let us just take a 
glance at the present system of betting, and, 
setting aside mathematical demonstrations, 

refusal to produce those horses for examination here, as 
conclusive of the facts of substitution alleged against 

'We are therefore of opinion, that neither Caroline 
nor Leinster are entitled to any stakes on the races for 
which they have come in first ; that the second horses 
in those races should be deemed the winners ; and that 
the bets should go accordingly, except in the match 
between Caroline and Fusileer, in which the bets are 

' In conclusion, we feel imperatively called upon to 
remark that, in consequence of Mr. Ruthven's with- 
drawal of his name from the Turf Club, it does not 
become a part of our painful duty to recommend to the 
Club any further proceedings in this matter. 

(Signed) 'JOHN C. WESTENRA. 


A full account of Ruthven's affair is to be seen in the 
March number of the New Sporting Magazine, 1836, 
p. 326. 


applicable only where chances are equal, 
state the general method of what is called 
1 making a book.' The first object of the 
betting man is to purchase cheaply, and to 
sell dearly ; and next to secure himself by 
hedging, so that he cannot lose, if he do 
not win. This, however, it is evident, will 
not satisfy him, and he seeks for an oppor- 
tunity of making himself a winner, without 
the chance of being a loser \ which is done by 
what is called betting round. For example : 
if twenty horses start in a race, and A bets 
10 to i against each^ he must win 9, as he 
receives 19, and only pays 10; namely 
10 to i to the winning horse. This, of 
course, can rarely be done, because it might 
not occur in a hundred years that all the 
horses were at such equal odds. Neverthe- 
less, it is quite evident, that if, when a 
certain number of horses start, A bets 
against all, taking care that he does not 
bet a higher sum against any one horse 
that may win, than would be covered by 
his winnings by the others which lose, he 
must win. Let us, then, suppose A begin- 
ning to make his Derby book at the com- 
mencement of the new year. B bets him 


(about the usual odds) 20 to i against an 
outsider, which A takes in hundreds, viz., 
2000 to 100. The outsider improves; he 
comes out in the spring, and wins a race, 
and the odds drop to 10 to i. A bets 
1000 to 100 against him. He is now on 
velvet; he cannot lose, and may win 1000. 
In fact, he has one thousand pounds in 
hand to play with, which the alteration of 
the odds has given him. But mark, he is 
only playing with it ; he may never pocket 
it : so he acts thus. The outsider we will 
call him Repealer comes out again, wins 
another race, and the odds are only 5 to i 
against him. A bets 500 to 100 more 
against him ; and let us now see how he 
stands : 

If Repealer wins, A receives from B . . .2000 
He pays to C . . . . ,1000 
Ditto to D . . . . 500 

Balance in A's favour by Repealer winning ^500 

If Repealer loses A receives from C . ;ioo 
Ditto from D 100 

A pays B ;ioo Deduct 100 

Balance in A's favour by Repealer losing ^100 


But is there no contingency here. Yes, 
the colt might have died before A had 
hedged, and then he must have paid his 
one hundred pounds; but, on the other 
hand, he would have been out of the field, 
which might have been worth all the money 
to him, in his deeper speculations on other 
horses. But let us suppose our colt to have 
remained at the original odds, viz., 20 to i. 
In that case, A must have betted 2000 to 100 
against him, and then no harm would have 

In what is called making a book on a 
race, it is evident that the bettor must be 
early in the market, taking and betting the 
odds for and against each horse : for backing 
a favourite to win is not his system. His 
chief object is to take long odds against 
such horses as he fancies, and then await 
the turn of the market, when he sells dearly 
what he has purchased cheaply. For ex- 
ample, how often does it happen that 12 to 
i is the betting against a horse two months 
before his race, and before he starts it is 
only 4 to i ? If the bettor has taken 1200 
to 100 against him, and then bets 400 to 100 
the other way, he risks nothing, but has a 


chance to win 800. It is by this system of 
betting that it often becomes a matter of 
indifference to a man which horse wins, his 
money being so divided amongst them all. 
In fact, what is called an outsider is often 
the best winner for him, as in that case he 
pockets all the bets he has made against 
those horses which gentlemen and their 
friends have fancied. There is, however, 
too often what is called 'the book-horse ' 
in some of the great races, in which more 
than one party are concerned. What the 
term ' book-horse ' implies, we need not 
explain further than by saying, that it would 
signify little were he really a book and not 
a horse : the animal with the best blood 
in England in his veins, and the best jockey 
on his back, shall have no more chance 
to win, if backed heavily to lose, than a 

Yet this evil is likely to cure itself ; and 
we cannot more clearly point out the 
remedy than by extracting the following 
passage from the June number of the New 
Sporting Magazine for the year 1836. 'The 
settling-day (for the Epsom Meeting) on the 
24th of May, passed off worse than any 


settling-day within our recollection. There 
was less money forthcoming than ever was 
known ; and one noble lord, a book -winner 
of ten thousand pounds, was only able to 
draw three thousand pounds ; while others 
actually went prepared to pay, whereas they 
ought to have been large winners. We are 
happy to add that the blackleg fraternity 
were the heavy losers, and upon the old 
proverb of "ex nihilo nihil fit" no better 
settling could be expected. Until gentle- 
men and men of reputation separate them- 
selves from such unworthy associates, 
betting and book-making must continue a 
mere farce. 7 

As we well know that a huge fortune was 
made in the betting-ring by a certain person 
now deceased, who could neither read nor 
write, and that one of the heaviest bettors 
of the present day is in the same state of 
blessed ignorance, 1 we may safely conclude, 

1 We have here, perhaps, the only instance of 
palpable arithmetic in these days ; still it is truly 
characteristic. The ancient Greeks kept their accounts 
by the means of pebbles, and so does this modern 
Athenian, shifting them from pocket to pocket as events 
come off; and, although a heavy bettor in the New- 
market ring, he is generally correct. Perhaps he may 


that if these two persons ever heard of 
fractional arithmetic, they could know no 
more of it than of the division of logarithms. 
Nevertheless, the probability of events can 
only be found by such help : and even then, 
as far as racing is concerned, although the 
adept in this part of the mathematician's art 
may be able to ascertain the precise odds 
that may be given or received, so as to 
provide against loss, yet he will find that, to 
be certain to win, advantage must be taken 
of all chances more favourable than the 
precise odds. In fact, it will be by advan- 
tageous bets on particular events, that he 
will have a balance in his favour at the 
winding-up of his book, and it would avail 
him little to work for no profit. The main 

have been indebted, for this clever expedient, to some 
learned Cantab, who may have told him, on the 
authority of Diogenes Laertius, that the bestowing on 
pebbles an artificial value was even older than Solon, 
the great reformer of the Athenian commonwealth. 
Eschines, in his oration for the crown, indeed, speaking 
of balanced accounts, says, ' the pebbles were cleared 
away, and none left ' ; and his rival, Demosthenes, 
strikes his balance by the help of counters. Hence the 
origin of the word calculate, from calculus, a pebble ; 
and in popular language of the present day, to clear 
scores, is to settle accounts. 


point, however, on which it is indispensably 
necessary to keep the eye in betting, is, in a 
series of different events, the exact odds to be 
readily had on every individual event ; and 
having made a round of these engagements, 
as opinion fluctuates, opportunities will offer 
themselves where great advantage may be 

It is on a plurality of events that figures 
must be resorted to, the chances on which 
must be put to the test of arithmetical 
solution. As everything may be under- 
stood which man is permitted to know, a 
few lessons from the schoolmaster will 
furnish this ; and we now give the following 
simple examples, which are easily under- 
stood, and generally applicable. And let 
us add, that, to a betting man, who 
speculates largely, the difference of half 
a ? point in the precise odds may win or 
lose a large fortune in the course of a 
few years. 

EXAMPLES. Two horses are about to 
start. The betting on one is even, and the 
odds on the other is 6 to 4. What odds 
must B bet A that he does not name both 


the winners'* The expression for the former 
is |, and for the latter T ^ ; but -$ is equal 
to f , therefore say 

|xf = i 3 o; and 10-3 = 7. 

hence the odds are 7 to 3. B, therefore, 
lays A 7 to 3 that he does not name both 
winners, and then hedges as follows : As 
three pounds is the sum to which he has 
staked his seven pounds, he lays that sum 
even that A wins ; and on the other event 
he lays 6 to 4 (the odds in the example) 
the same way. Now A wins both, and 
receives of B seven pounds ; but B wins 
three pounds on the former by hedging, 
and four pounds on the latter, which is 
equal to what he has lost to A. It is here 
obvious, that had B, in hedging, been 
enabled to have made better bets for 
instance, could he have done better than by 
taking an even three pounds on the first 
event, and had greater odds than 6 to 4 on 
the latter he might have won, but could 
not have lost. 

On the same two events, what odds may 
B lay A that the latter does not lose both ? 
Set down for the former |, and the latter 


will now be T 4 ^ ; but ^ is equal to -f ; there- 
fore, it will be 

4x1 = 1%; and 10-2 = 8: 
hence the odds are 8 to 2 = 4 to i. 

Proof by Hedging. B begins to hedge by 
betting an even one pound on the first 
event, which, A winning, he wins. On the 
subsequent event, B takes the odds, 3 to 2, 
which, A winning, he also wins. Thus he 
receives four pounds, which pays the 4 to i 
he betted on A losing both events. 

Upon two several events, even betting on 
the one, and 7 to 4 in favour of A on the 
other, what odds may B lay against A 
winning both? The one, as before, is J, 
and the other is represented by T 7 T : 
Then Jx T 7 T = ^; and 22-7 = 15: 

thus 15 to 7 is the odds. 

Proof by Hedging. The sum against 
which B laid his odds is 7 ; therefore he 
begins by laying seven pounds on the first 
event ; which, as A wins, he wins. On the 
next event he lays 14 to 8, or twice 7 to 
twice 4, as per terms of question, which he 
also wins; making together 7 and 8=15, 
the odds he had laid with, and lost to A. 



Upon the same two events, what odds 
may B bet A that the latter does not lose 
both ? Set down for the former J, for the 
latter T 4 T : 

Then \ x T * T = ^r 5 an <* 22 - 4= 18 : 

therefore 1 8 to 4 = 9 to 2 is the odds. 

Proof by Hedging. B bets first the sum 
to which he has laid his odds, namely, two 
pounds, which he wins ; and then taking 
7 to 4 on the second event, he wins 2 + 7 = 9, 
which pays the nine pounds he lost to A ; 
and had more favourable odds been offered, 
B must have been a winner without risk of 

When three distinct events are pending, 
on the first of which the betting is even ; 
on the second 3 to 2 in favour of A, and 
the third 5 to 4 ; what odds should B 
lay A that the latter does not name all 
the winners ? The first is expressed by J, 
the second by f , and the third by : 


4 x f if (by cancelling) \ ; and 6- 1 = 5: 

hence the odds are 5 to i. 

Proof by Hedging. B begins to hedge by 
betting an even two pounds that A wins the 


i 9 4 THE TURF 

first event ; he then bets the odds on the 
next, viz. (3 to 2)~2 = i| to i. B also bets 
the odds on the third event, viz. (5 to 4)-r2 
= 2^ to 2. Now A wins all three; there- 
fore, B wins 2 + 1 + 2 = ^5, which pays what 
he lost to A. The odds that A did not lose 
these three events would be 41 to 4. 

We now dismiss this subject, with no 
probability of our ever returning to it. Al- 
though the perusal of Xenophon might have 
made Scipio a hero, we have not the slightest 
intention of manufacturing jockeys by any 
effort of our pen ; and yet we wish we had 
touched on these matters sooner. But why 
so ? Is it that we would rather have been 
Livy, to have written on the grandeur of 
Rome, than Tacitus on its ill-fated decline ? 
It may be so ; for we are loth to chronicle, 
in any department, our country's dispraise \ 
but we are not without the reflection, that 
we might have done something towards 
preventing the evils we have had to deplore, 
by exposing the manner in which they have 
accumulated and thriven. That there are 
objections to racing, we do not deny, as, 
indeed, there are to most of the sports which 
have been invented for the amusement of 


mankind, and few of which can gratify pure 
benevolence; but, when honourably con- 
ducted, we consider the turf as not more 
objectionable than most others, and it has 
one advantage over almost all now in any 
measure of fashionable repute : it diffuses its 
pleasures far and wide. The owner of race- 
horses cannot gratify his passion for the 
turf without affording delight to thousands 
upon thousands of the less fortunate of his 
countrymen. This is no trivial feature in 
the case, now that shooting is divided be- 
tween the lordly battue and the prowl of the 
poacher, and that fox-hunting is every day 
becoming more and more a piece of ex- 
clusive luxury, instead of furnishing the 
ord, the squire, and the yeoman, with a 
common recreation, and promoting mutual 
goodwill among all the inhabitants of the 
rural district. 

Printed by T. and A. CONSTABLE, (late) Printers to Her Majesty 
at the Edinburgh University Press 


TO* 202 Main Library 








1 -month loans may be renewed by calling 642-3405 

6-month loans may be recharged by bringing books to Circulation Desk 

Renewals and recharges may be made 4 days prior to due date 




YA 023C4